The Gate Church of the Trinity is a historic church of the ancient cave monastery of Kyiv Pechersk Lavra in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. Originally being built as a Kievan Rus' style church, the Gate Church of the Trinity is now decorated in the Ukrainian Baroque style, having been reconstructed many times through its history.
The Gate Church of the Trinity was built in 1106-1108, as part of the Pechersk Lavra fortification, atop the main entrance to the monastery. After destruction of the Dormition Cathedral during the Mongol invasion of 1240, it became the main church of the monastery. In 1462, the most complete edition of the Kiev Pechersk Paterikcon was written here. In 1631, Petro Mohyla founded a school at the monastery's hospital. The school was later merged with the Kyivan Brotherhood School. Since 1701, the combined schools became a Kyivan Academy.
The church was studied by P. Lashkarev, I. Morgilevsky, Y. Aseev, F. Umantsev and S. Kilesso. In 1957-1958, their restoration efforts included replacing lost decorations, gilding the dome, and retouching external oil paintings.
The church is located atop the Holy Gates, the main entrance to the monastery. Near the entrance are rooms for the gate's guards. The church is wedged between monastery walls, helping to protect the gates. The monastery walls, covered in frescoes, were renewed in 1900-1901.
The Gate Church of the Trinity is divided into three naves, each containing a spherical apse off the western side. An external stone stairway leads to the church. Several narrow window openings and the overall visually uplifting effect create a heightened sense of spiritual power.
The church is a typical Kievan Rus' construction built on an ancient stone church. Kievan Rus' architectural motifs can still be seen on the southern façade. The church retained its Ukrainian Baroque exteriour after restoration in the 17th-18th centuries by Master V. Stefanovych. During restoration, a new cupola was erected and interior paintings were added.
In 1725, a large sixteen-candle chandelier was installed. During the 1730s-1740s, artists from the monastery's iconography workshop decorated the church's interiour. The church's frescoes were based on Biblical scenes, and the exterior decor was based on Ukrainian folklore. Eighteenth-century compositions have been preserved to this day.
Interiour frescoes are a unique collection of 18th-century traditional Ukrainian architecture. Allegorical and historical Biblical topics are given in a noncanonical way; some include Ukrainian national ornaments. Carved wooden chairs, painted in Ukrainian folk tradition, are installed along the western wall.References:
Monte d"Accoddi is a Neolithic archaeological site in northern Sardinia, located in the territory of Sassari. The site consists of a massive raised stone platform thought to have been an altar. It was constructed by the Ozieri culture or earlier, with the oldest parts dated to around 4,000–3,650 BC.
The site was discovered in 1954 in a field owned by the Segni family. No chambers or entrances to the mound have been found, leading to the presumption it was an altar, a temple or a step pyramid. It may have also served an observational function, as its square plan is coordinated with the cardinal points of the compass.
The initial Ozieri structure was abandoned or destroyed around 3000 BC, with traces of fire found in the archeological evidence. Around 2800 BC the remains of the original structure were completely covered with a layered mixture of earth and stone, and large blocks of limestone were then applied to establish a second platform, truncated by a step pyramid (36 m × 29 m, about 10 m in height), accessible by means of a second ramp, 42 m long, built over the older one. This second temple resembles contemporary Mesopotamian ziggurats, and is attributed to the Abealzu-Filigosa culture.
Archeological excavations from the chalcolithic Abealzu-Filigosa layers indicate the Monte d"Accoddi was used for animal sacrifice, with the remains of sheep, cattle, and swine recovered in near equal proportions. It is among the earliest known sacrificial sites in Western Europe.
The site appears to have been abandoned again around 1800 BC, at the onset of the Nuragic age.
The monument was partially reconstructed during the 1980s. It is open to the public and accessible by the old route of SS131 highway, near the hamlet of Ottava. It is 14,9 km from Sassari and 45 km from Alghero. There is no public transportation to the site. The opening times vary throughout the year.