Deganwy Castle was an early stronghold of Gwynedd and lies in Deganwy at the mouth of the River Conwy in Conwy, north Wales.
The Early Middle Ages fortress, which is now little more than ditches and mounds, was made of wood and constructed on a massive rock outcrop in what is now the suburbs of modern-day Llandudno. Traditionally, it was the headquarters of Maelgwn Gwynedd, King of Gwynedd (fl. c. 520–547). A nearby hill is called Bryn Maelgwyn and other places in the locality are associated with him. An important coin hoard of 204 Silver Cnut pennies was found on Bryn Maelgwyn in July 1979.
Deganwy was probably first occupied during the Roman period, but was popular in the years following their departure because it was safe from Irish raids. The area beneath the rocky stronghold may have been the site of a settlement of serfs. The stronghold was burned down in 812 when it was struck by lightning.
By the thirteenth century, Deganwy was fortified by the prince of Wales Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. It was captured by the earl of Chester in 1210, but recaptured shortly afterward by Llywelyn, who had it refortified in stone.
In 1241, possession of the castle was taken by King Henry III of England, who embarked on an extensive building programme. The castle was destroyed by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales in 1263. In 1283, King Edward I of England had Conwy Castle constructed just across the estuary and he left Deganwy Castle in ruins.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.