Castell Aberlleiniog (Castle of the Mouth of the Lleiniog) is a motte and bailey fortress near the Welsh village of Llangoed on the Isle of Anglesey, built between 1080 and 1099 by Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester. It is about two miles distant from Beaumaris Castle, and was built atop a very steep hill.
Castell Aberlleiniog is built in a strategic position beside the Menai Strait opposite the Norman castle at Abergwyngregyn, showing that visual communication was important to the Norman invaders. It was probably erected by Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester, when he conquered Gwynedd in 1088. There are few historical documents that detail the events the castle has seen through its life, however some do survive, including a record of a siege in 1094 by Gruffudd ap Cynan on his return from Ireland. The siege was successful, 124 Norman defenders died in the battle. Gruffudd was later successful in driving Hugh out, and after this, Anglesey remained under the control of the Welsh until the arrival of Edward I two hundred years later. It is not known whether they made use of Castell Aberlleiniog.
The original Norman timber structure is long gone, replaced by a stone structure at some point prior to the mid-17th century, when it was destroyed by Thomas Cheadle, the constable of Beaumaris. The site was restored from 2008 and is (2016) open to the public. The keep had broad ramparts fronted by a narrow wall rising to a parapet; each corner contained a round tower, the remains of which can still be seen.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.