Rauna Castle ruins was the principal residence of the Archbishopric of Riga in which at for certain period each year it was visited the Archbishop with his entourage. The first mention of Rauna Castle date back to 1381, although historians agree that it may have been built here even earlier. 18th century sources mention the castle as being erected in 1262, following a proposal of Albert Suerbeer, Archbishop of Riga. It is noted that the castle was one of the most important centres of the archdiocese.
The biggest reconstructions occurred under the reign of Archbishop Jasper Linde. One of the new towers built was named Garais Kaspars (Tall Jasper), after the archbishop, and a small settlement developed around the castle, which later became the village of Rauna.
The devastation of the castle started in 1556 with attacks by the Livonian Order, which lasted until the end of the Livonian War. The worst damage to the castle occurred from 1657 to 1658, during the Second Northern War between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire. The castle was deserted after that and slowly turned to ruins. In 1683 the king of Sweden ordered the destruction of anything that resembled a fortress around the castle, so all towers were demolished. Today the Rauna Castle ruins are preserved. Many walls and even the bases of the towers remain.References:
Dating from the 15th century, Kisimul is the only significant surviving medieval castle in the Outer Hebrides. It was the residence of the chief of the Macneils of Barra, who claimed descent from the legendary Niall of the Nine Hostages. Tradition tells of the Macneils settling in Barra in the 11th century, but it was only in 1427 that Gilleonan Macneil comes on record as the first lord. He probably built the castle that dominates the rocky islet, and in its shadow a crew house for his personal galley and crew. The sea coursed through Macneil veins, and a descendant, Ruari ‘the Turbulent’, was arrested for piracy of an English ship during King James VI’s reign in the later 16th century.
Heavy debts eventually forced the Macneil chiefs to sell Barra in 1838. However, a descendant, Robert Lister Macneil, the 45th Chief, repurchased the estate in 1937, and set about restoring his ancestral seat. It passed into Historic Scotland’s care in 2000.
The castle dates essentially from the 15th century. It takes the form of a three-storey tower house. This formed the residence of the clan chief. An associated curtain wall fringed the small rock on which the castle stood, and enclosed a small courtyard in which there are ancillary buildings. These comprised a feasting hall, a chapel, a tanist’s house and a watchman’s house. Most were restored in the 20th century, the tanist’s house serving as the family home of the Macneils. A well near the postern gate is fed with fresh water from an underground seam. Outside the curtain wall, beside the original landing-place, are the foundations of the crew house, where the sailors manning their chief’s galley had their quarters.