Rauna Castle ruins was the principal residence of the Archbishopric of Riga in which at for certain period each year it was visited the Archbishop with his entourage. The first mention of Rauna Castle date back to 1381, although historians agree that it may have been built here even earlier. 18th century sources mention the castle as being erected in 1262, following a proposal of Albert Suerbeer, Archbishop of Riga. It is noted that the castle was one of the most important centres of the archdiocese.
The biggest reconstructions occurred under the reign of Archbishop Jasper Linde. One of the new towers built was named Garais Kaspars (Tall Jasper), after the archbishop, and a small settlement developed around the castle, which later became the village of Rauna.
The devastation of the castle started in 1556 with attacks by the Livonian Order, which lasted until the end of the Livonian War. The worst damage to the castle occurred from 1657 to 1658, during the Second Northern War between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire. The castle was deserted after that and slowly turned to ruins. In 1683 the king of Sweden ordered the destruction of anything that resembled a fortress around the castle, so all towers were demolished. Today the Rauna Castle ruins are preserved. Many walls and even the bases of the towers remain.References:
The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village. Settlement here began sometime between 500 and 200 BC. At the centre of the settlement is a stone tower or broch, which once probably reached a height of around 10 metres. Its interior is divided into sections by upright slabs. The tower features two skins of drystone walls, with stone-floored galleries in between. These are accessed by steps. Stone ledges suggest that there was once an upper storey with a timber floor. The roof would have been thatched, surrounded by a wall walk linked by stairs to the ground floor. The broch features two hearths and a subterranean stone cistern with steps leading down into it. It is thought to have some religious significance, relating to an Iron Age cult of the underground.
The remains of the central tower are up to 3.6 metres high, and the stone walls are up to 4.1 metres thick.