Valaam Monastery

Valaam, Russia

The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is a stauropegic Orthodox monastery located on Valaam island in Lake Ladoga. It is not clear when the monastery was founded. As the cloister is not mentioned in documents before the 16th century, different dates - from 10th to 15th centuries - have been expounded. According to one tradition, the monastery was founded by a 10th century Greek monk, Sergius, and his Karelian companion, Herman. Heikki Kirkinen inclines to date the foundation of the monastery to the 12th century. Contemporary historians consider even this date too early. According to the scholarly consensus, the monastery was founded at some point towards the end of the 14th century. John H. Lind and Michael C. Paul date the founding to between 1389 and 1393 based on various sources, including the Tale of the Valaamo Monastery, a 16th century manuscript, which has the monastery founded during the archiepiscopate of Ioann II of Novgorod. Whatever the truth may be, the Valaam monastery was a northern outpost of Eastern Orthodoxy against the heathens and, later, a western outpost against Catholic Christianity from Tavastia, Savonia and (Swedish) Karelia.

The power struggle between Russians and Swedes pushed the border eastwards in the 16th century; in 1578 the monastery was attacked and numerous monks and novices were killed by the Lutheran Swedes. The monastery was desolate between 1611 and 1715 after another attack of the Swedes, the buildings being burnt to the ground and the Karelian border between Russia and Sweden being drawn through Lake Ladoga. In the 18th century the monastery was magnificently restored, and in 1812 it came under the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.

In 1917, Finland became independent, and the Finnish Orthodox Church became autonomous under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, as previously it had been a part of the Russian Orthodox Church. Valaam was the most important monastery of the Finnish Orthodox Church. The liturgic language was changed from Church Slavonic to Finnish, and the liturgic calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. These changes led to bitter decade-long disputes in the monastic community of Valaam.

The territory was fought over by the Soviet Union and Finland during World War II. Due to theWinter War, the monastery was evacuated in 1940, when 150 monks settled in Heinävesi inFinland. This community still exists as New Valamo Monastery in Heinävesi. Having received evacuees from the Konevitsa monastery and Petsamo monastery, it is now the only monastery of the Finnish Orthodox Church.

From 1941 to 1944, during the Continuation War, an attempt was made to restore the monastery buildings at Old Valaam, but later the island served as a Soviet military base. Since the original Valaam Monastery was bequeathed back to the Orthodox Church in 1989, it has been enjoying the personal patronage of Patriarch Alexey II, who frequented the cloister when a child. The monastery, whose buildings have been meticulously restored, has gained significant legal power over the island, in a push to return to a state of spiritual seclusion. After years of fruitless legal proceedings with the monastery, many residents of the island chose to leave, though a few still remain.

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Valaam, Russia
See all sites in Valaam

Details

Founded: Late 1300s
Category: Religious sites in Russia

More Information

en.wikipedia.org
valaam.ru

Rating

4.8/5 (based on Google user reviews)

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User Reviews

Krstivoje (2 years ago)
Ok
Irene Pemberton (3 years ago)
Fantastic. Very spiritual and a great vibe
Tatyana Shein (3 years ago)
Amazing
Denis Frolow (3 years ago)
Valaam island is a unique place in the middle of lake Onega. Famous not only for its flora and marvellous coastal line, the island is the loved place for christian pilgrims as there's the monastery on it. Monks are living on the island all year around growing vegies, crops and fishing. Bikes are available for hiring which is great as there are places worth to see Some areas though is hard to get as there could be no proper road. Some camp sites on the beach are also available. Gorgeous sunsets and very friendly locals will make the visit unforgettable.
Peter Mirtov (4 years ago)
Northen nature, the old monastry
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