The initial hillfort of the Teutonic Knights in Panemunė (erected 1343) was replaced by a present castle built in 1604-1610. It was built by Hungarian nobleman Eperjesh who bought the surrounding lands from Lithuanian local inhabitants. It is a typical 17th century feudal castle with a defensive tackle, living quarters and farm buildings. The castle stands in a park on a high hill and is girdled by five cascading ponds. It was reconstructed around 1759 by Giełgud family.
The Panemunė castle was left to decay in the 19th century. Its valuable library was brought out, the former marvelous park of classicism style became feral. In 1925 Lithuanian government acquired the castle into a national possession. In 1935 the Panemunė castle and its surroundings where taken under responsibility of Lithuanian Culture department.
Nowadays Panemunė castle has 2 corpuses remained – the western including 2 towers and the southern. Panemunė castle belongs to Vilnius Art Academy which takes care about restoration of the castle and fitting it to science, education and tourism purposes. During the summer season the Vilnius Art Academy arranges there expositions of art works.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.