Deltaterasserne is one of the largest archaeological sites in Peary Land, the northernmost part of Greenland. These terraces were inhabited circa 4000 - 3700 BC by Independence I and Independence II cultures.
Deltaterrasserne was constructed of large, terraced stones, ranging from 5m to 23m above sea level. Knuth named the site's ruins and caches in order of their descending elevation. These are scattered over 800 m of beach terraces in a multicomponent campsite. The highest of the terrace sites is named Terrace A. Its three ruins contain tent rings, central hearth, charcoal, and a gravel berm periphery, along with a meat cache. Terrace B is located most centrally within the site and also has the most features, including open-air box hearths and dwellings. Terrace C contains only one feature, a cache with a paved lower floor. Terrace D contains caches, dwellings, and an open-air hearth. Terrace E is the lowest of the terraced ruins and features a Stone Age tent ring. A striking resemblance has been noted between the Deltaterrasserne dwellings with those from northern Eurasia.
Hundreds of organic, faunal, and lithic artifacts were recovered. Organic artifacts included items such as axes, charred driftwood, pointed sticks, pins, and birch bark rolls. Faunal artifacts included bird, fish, and mammalian remains. Lithic artifacts include burin spalls. The most common artifacts were microblades, burins, flint flakers, and bone needles. Some needles exhibited rectangular eyeholes, typical of Independence II culture, while others had round eyeholes, typical of Independence I culture. Found at Terrace B was a side prong fragment for a leister or bird dart.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.