The Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery was founded by Dmitry Prilutsky, formerly a hegumen of the Nikolsky Monastery in Pereslavl-Zalessky. Dmitry left Pereslavl since he thought it was too crowded, and moved north. He first decided to settle down on the Obnora River, currently in Gryazovetsky District of Vologda Oblast, but he was not accepted warmly by the local population, and he moved further north. At the currentl location of the monastery, which was at the time relatively far from the city of Vologda, he built a wooden church and the cells.
The end of the 14th century was the time of rapid expansion of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and Dmitry Donskoy, the prince of Moscow, considered it very important as an influence point of the Moscow State in the north. The princes of Moscow and later tsars belonged to the main benefactors of the monastery. Vasily III visited the monastery personally in 1528, when he and his wife, Elena Glinskaya, childless for a long time, made a pilgrimage to a number of Russian monasteries in hope to get a child. (The child who was eventually born was Ivan the Terrible).
In August 1924, the monastery was abolished. The buildings were subsequently used for a variety of purposes, including living quarters, a prison, a depot, and a museum. All the buildings consisting the ensemble of the monastery were preserved though. In 1991, the monastery was re-established. The selo of Priluki, where the monastery was located, in 1993 was included into the city of Vologda.
The monastery is built as a fortress, has an approximately rectangular shape, and is completely surrounded by a wall, which has four corner towers and three gates. The northern wall has the main gate and the gate Resurrection Church, the western wall has a gate leading to the Vologda River, and the southern wall has the third gate which is now defunct. The wall was completed in 1656. The construction started after the monastery was plundered by Polish armies in the Time of Troubles.
The main cathedral, located in the center of the monastery, is the Saint Saviour Cathedral, built in 1537-1542. It was the first stone building in Vologda. The bell-tower was built between 1639 and 1654. In 1811, the cathedral burnt down and was only restored in 1813-1817. In the meanwhile, during the French invasion of Russia, the Napoleon army occupied Moscow, and some of the treasures belonging to the church were speedily evacuated from Moscow. They were kept in Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery, in the cathedral which at the time was still not restored. The cathedral is connected to a set of buildings, including the Presentation Church, built before 1623.
The Church of All Saints was built in 1721, and the Church of Saint Catherine originates from 1830.
In 1962, the wooden Assumption Church, which was formerly located in the Alexandro-Kushtsky Monastery close to the selo of Ustye, was transferred to the Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery. This is one of the earliest surviving wooden buildings in Russia.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.