The Tower of Kamianiec, often called by the misnomer the White Tower, is the main landmark of the town of Kamianiec in Belarus. Erected in 1271–1289 by the architect Oleksa as a frontier stronghold on the northern border of the principality of Volhynia, it is the only such tower remaining to this day in the area. The first record in the chronicles about the foundation of the tower dates from 1276. The advantageous location on the stony steep bank of the Liasnaja River for the construction of the frontier stronghold, a castle with a keep on the northern border of Volhynia principality was found by Oleksa. Vladimir Vasilkovich, the prince of Volhynia, liked the place and ordered Oleksa to build the castle.
The castle was built as an enclosed community. Like many European castles, it had a great round tower, on the raised mound (motte), enclosed by a moat and the river on the northern side, and an adjoining enclosure (bailey), that was completely destroyed in 1903. This type of the motte-and-bailey castle appeared in the 10th and 11th centuries between the Rhine and Loire rivers and eventually spread to most of western Europe and even to the area of the present Belarus. The red-brick tower with service and residential rooms on 5 levels inside was actually a donjon or a keep, that was quite common in France and England till the 16th century. It is 30 meters (98 ft) high, the redbrick walls are about 2.5 m (8.2 ft) thick, with a pitched roof at the top.
The name Bielaja Vieža, which literally means White Tower or White Fortress in Belarusian, presumably derives from the tower's proximity to the Belavezhskaya Pushcha Forest, but not from its color, which has been brick-red through the ages, never white.
Standing atop a gentle rise overlooking the Liasnaja river, the tower is the main landmark of Kamianiec today. It was erected in the 1270s. Today it is a national historic site. Since 1960 the tower houses a branch of the Brest regional museum. Once similar towers were built in Brest (Bierascie), Hrodna, Turaŭ, Navahradak, but they were destroyed in the course of wars. The tower of Kamianiec is the only one that survived in Belarus until the present.
The tower was entirely built of brick, that makes it unique. The brick construction was rarely used in this part of Europe until the close of the Middle Ages, as the brick production was costly in those days. Till the 16th century mostly rubbleworks prevailed in fortifications and churches and monasteries, only some parts of exterior were built of brick. The tower traces the influence of Western Europe, where brickwork was used extensively in the late 13th – early 14th century.
Unlike the narrow loopholes on lower levels, the pointed big lancet windows and niches on the upper floor are an excellent example of early Gothic architecture in Belarus. The openings of the windows and niches were plastered and whitewashed. The windows were designed to permit the entry of light into the apartments, where the nobility used to live during sieges. Glass windows was another contribution to Gothic architecture. It is apparent that the residents were eager to make themselves at home in the keep. The upper part of the tower was furnished with battlements and a pattern of surface modeling of the brickwork, several nice ring dog tooth courses running below the battlements.
The brickwork features a peculiar Baltic bond: a course consists of 2 stretchers and 1 header. Some bricks on the exterior were damaged or dismantled by the local peasants, the brickwork was repaired in 1903 while the archeological excavations were going on around the tower. 10,000 bricks were used for the work.
This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on January 30, 2004, in the Cultural category.References:
Easter Aquhorthies stone circle, located near Inverurie, is one of the best-preserved examples of a recumbent stone circle, and one of the few that still have their full complement of stones. It consists of a ring of nine stones, eight of which are grey granite and one red jasper. Two more grey granite stones flank a recumbent of red granite flecked with crystals and lines of quartz. The circle is particularly notable for its builders' use of polychromy in the stones, with the reddish ones situated on the SSW side and the grey ones opposite.
The placename Aquhorthies derives from a Scottish Gaelic word meaning 'field of prayer', and may indicate a 'long continuity of sanctity' between the Stone or Bronze Age circle builders and their much later Gaelic successors millennia later. The circle's surroundings were landscaped in the late 19th century, and it sits within a small fenced and walled enclosure. A stone dyke, known as a roundel, was built around the circle some time between 1847 and 1866–7.