The Tower of Kamianiec, often called by the misnomer the White Tower, is the main landmark of the town of Kamianiec in Belarus. Erected in 1271–1289 by the architect Oleksa as a frontier stronghold on the northern border of the principality of Volhynia, it is the only such tower remaining to this day in the area. The first record in the chronicles about the foundation of the tower dates from 1276. The advantageous location on the stony steep bank of the Liasnaja River for the construction of the frontier stronghold, a castle with a keep on the northern border of Volhynia principality was found by Oleksa. Vladimir Vasilkovich, the prince of Volhynia, liked the place and ordered Oleksa to build the castle.

The castle was built as an enclosed community. Like many European castles, it had a great round tower, on the raised mound (motte), enclosed by a moat and the river on the northern side, and an adjoining enclosure (bailey), that was completely destroyed in 1903. This type of the motte-and-bailey castle appeared in the 10th and 11th centuries between the Rhine and Loire rivers and eventually spread to most of western Europe and even to the area of the present Belarus. The red-brick tower with service and residential rooms on 5 levels inside was actually a donjon or a keep, that was quite common in France and England till the 16th century. It is 30 meters (98 ft) high, the redbrick walls are about 2.5 m (8.2 ft) thick, with a pitched roof at the top.

The name Bielaja Vieža, which literally means White Tower or White Fortress in Belarusian, presumably derives from the tower's proximity to the Belavezhskaya Pushcha Forest, but not from its color, which has been brick-red through the ages, never white.

Standing atop a gentle rise overlooking the Liasnaja river, the tower is the main landmark of Kamianiec today. It was erected in the 1270s. Today it is a national historic site. Since 1960 the tower houses a branch of the Brest regional museum. Once similar towers were built in Brest (Bierascie), Hrodna, Turaŭ, Navahradak, but they were destroyed in the course of wars. The tower of Kamianiec is the only one that survived in Belarus until the present.

The tower was entirely built of brick, that makes it unique. The brick construction was rarely used in this part of Europe until the close of the Middle Ages, as the brick production was costly in those days. Till the 16th century mostly rubbleworks prevailed in fortifications and churches and monasteries, only some parts of exterior were built of brick. The tower traces the influence of Western Europe, where brickwork was used extensively in the late 13th – early 14th century.

Unlike the narrow loopholes on lower levels, the pointed big lancet windows and niches on the upper floor are an excellent example of early Gothic architecture in Belarus. The openings of the windows and niches were plastered and whitewashed. The windows were designed to permit the entry of light into the apartments, where the nobility used to live during sieges. Glass windows was another contribution to Gothic architecture. It is apparent that the residents were eager to make themselves at home in the keep. The upper part of the tower was furnished with battlements and a pattern of surface modeling of the brickwork, several nice ring dog tooth courses running below the battlements.

The brickwork features a peculiar Baltic bond: a course consists of 2 stretchers and 1 header. Some bricks on the exterior were damaged or dismantled by the local peasants, the brickwork was repaired in 1903 while the archeological excavations were going on around the tower. 10,000 bricks were used for the work.

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on January 30, 2004, in the Cultural category.

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Founded: 1271-1289
Category: Castles and fortifications in Belarus

More Information

en.wikipedia.org

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BUYAN (2 years ago)
Great place with rich history
Eyosaft Birhanu (3 years ago)
My experience in there was incredible, there was a party in the whole town, besides it's beautiful and hysterical place and I think it's one of the oldest places in Belarus.
Alex S (3 years ago)
Worth visiting if you are nearby.
OneLonely Sunday (3 years ago)
Old defence tower. Beautifully views from the top of the tower. Museum inside.
Valentine v (3 years ago)
Great antient tower.
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Castle of Lorca (Castillo de Lorca) is a fortress of medieval origin constructed between the 9th and 15th centuries. It consists of a series of defensive structures that, during the Middle Ages, made the town and the fortress an impregnable point in the southeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Lorca Castle was a key strategic point of contention between Christians and Muslims during the Reconquista.

Archaeological excavations have revealed that the site of the castle has been inhabited since Neolithic times.

Muslim Era

It has not been determined exactly when a castle or fortress was first built on the hill. The first written documentation referring to a castle at Lorca is of Muslim origin, which in the 9th century, indicates that the city of Lurqa was an important town in the area ruled by Theudimer (Tudmir). During Muslim rule, Lorca Castle was an impregnable fortress and its interior was divided into two sections by the Espaldón Wall. In the western part, there was an area used to protect livestock and grain in times of danger. The eastern part had a neighbourhood called the barrio de Alcalá.

After Reconquista

Lorca was conquered by the Castilian Infante Don Alfonso, the future Alfonso X, in 1244, and the fortress became a key defensive point against the Kingdom of Granada. For 250 years, Lorca Castle was a watchpoint on the border between the Christian kingdom of Murcia and the Muslim state of Granada.

Alfonso X ordered the construction of the towers known as the Alfonsina and Espolón Towers, and strengthened and fixed the walls. Hardly a trace of the Muslim fortress remained due to this reconstruction. Muslim traces remain in the foundation stones and the wall known as the muro del Espaldón.

The Jewish Quarter was found within the alcazaba, the Moorish fortification, separated from the rest of the city by its walls. The physical separation had the purpose of protecting the Jewish people in the town from harm, but also had the result of keeping Christians and Jews separate, with the Christians inhabiting the lower part of town.

The remains of the Jewish Quarter extended over an area of 5,700 square m, and 12 homes and a synagogue have been found; the synagogue dates from the 14th century and is the only one found in the Murcia. The streets of the town had an irregular layout, adapted to the landscape, and is divided into four terraces. The synagogue was in the central location, and around it were the homes. The homes were of rectangular shape, with various compartmentalized rooms. The living quarters were elevated and a common feature was benches attached to the walls, kitchens, stand for earthenware jars, or cupboards.

Modern history

With the disappearance of the frontier after the conquest of Granada in 1492, Lorca Castle no longer became as important as before. With the expulsion of the Jews by order of Ferdinand and Isabella, Lorca Castle was also depopulated as a result. The castle was abandoned completely, and was almost a complete ruin by the 18th century. In the 19th century, the castle was refurbished due to the War of Spanish Independence. The walls and structures were repaired or modified and its medieval look changed. A battery of cannons was installed, for example, during this time. In 1931 Lorca Castle was declared a National Historic Monument.

Currently, a parador (luxury hotel) has been built within the castle. As a result, archaeological discoveries have been found, including the Jewish Quarter.