Luzhetsky Monastery is a medieval fortified monastery in Mozhaysk founded in 1408 by Therapont of Belozersk. Therapont founded Ferapontov Monastery in 1398, located in the Principality of Beloozero, which at the time was administered jointly with the Principality of Mozhaysk. The prince, Andrey of Mozhaysk, resided in Mozhaysk, and was a brother of Vasily, the Grand Prince of Moscow. He was also one of the main sponsors of the monastery. In 1408, he sent a letter to Therapont urging him to come to Mozhaysk, and Therapont was obliged to obey. Even though Therapont, after arriving to Mozhaysk, expressed very clearly his wish to return to White Lake, the prince never let him go. They made a deal, and Therapont founded Luzhetsky Monastery in Mozhaysk. He died in the monastery in 1426. He is venered as a saint by Russian Orthodox Church.
The original cathedral was demolished in the first half of the 16th century, and a five-dome stone cathedral was built in 1524-1547, which still stands today. Mozhaysk, together with the monastery, was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the middle of the 16th century. The history of the monastery in the 15th century is somewhat unclear; it is known that in 1523 the hegumen of Luzhetsky Monastery was Makary, who later became the Metropolitan of Moscow.
The monastery was considerably damaged during the Time of Troubles in the 1610s, when it was plundered. Most of the current architecture of the monastery, including the bell-tower, the Transfiguration Church, and the cells, were built in the 17th century. In 1812, during the Napoleonic Wars, Luzhetsky monastery was briefly occupied and plundered by the advancing French army. In 1929, it was closed by the Soviets and reopened in 1994.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.