The construction of Staverns Fort began in 1677 when Ulrik Frederick Gyldenløve built a blockhouse with battery and palisades on a hill as part of the overall development of Norwegian fortresses. The fort was first built on Karlsøy during the Gyldenløve War (1675–1679). Fredriksvern and Fredriksvern Verft was established as the headquarters for the Norwegian Fleet from 1750 until 1758 so that the older fortification became part of the naval base and called the Citadellet and the island Citadelløya.
The fortress was expanded in 1687 until 1689 to include three canon batteries and a blockhouse. The fortress served as an important base for Norwegian naval hero Tordenskiold and his fleet during the Great Northern War’s final Norwegian phase from 1709 until 1720 and as a central staging point for sea commerce from Denmark in this period. The fort was the home port for the Danish–Norwegian Kattegat squadron. And not least, it served as a major chandelling and forwarding center for canon from the Norwegian ironworks and other equipment.
In the 1800s, Fredriksvern lost its importance as a military base. The Citadellet also lost its military importance and went into decline. In the 1900s, the buildings were restored. Krutttårnet, the oldest constructed building, has a distinctive architecture and today is a well known tourist attraction.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.