Forte San Giovanni was built between 1640 and 1644 just above the point where the valleys of rivers Pora and Aquila meet with the aim of strengthening defenses. The fort was adapted to the geographic topography and enclosed the ancient medieval tower linking the Finalborgo walls on Becchignolo hill. The work was directed by Ferdinando Glazer. This tower was recorded by the historian Filelfo and portrayed in a drawing of 1571.
The building developed with a pincer-shaped façade facing south, with high crowned walls with no openings, surmounted by a low parapet, and with suspended look-out towers on each corner. The fortress underwent other modifications directed by Spanish engineer Gaspare Beretta between 1674 and 1678. It was abandoned by the Spanish in 1707 and, under the domination of Genoa in 1713, it was partially destroyed. In 1833 it became a prison.
Since 1960 it has been public property and it has recently been completely restored.References:
First record of Kastelholma (or Kastelholm) castle is from the year 1388 in the contract of Queen Margaret I of Denmark, where a large portion of the inheritance of Bo Jonsson Grip was given to the queen. The heyday of the castle was in the 15th and 16th centuries when it was administrated by Danish and Swedish kings and stewards of the realms. Kastelhoma was expanded and enhanced several times.
In the end of 16th century castle was owned by the previous queen Catherine Jagellon (Stenbock), an enemy of the King of Sweden Eric XIV. King Eric conquered Kastelholma in 1599 and all defending officers were taken to Turku and executed. The castle was damaged under the siege and it took 30 years to renovate it.
In 1634 Åland was joined with the County of Åbo and Björneborg and Kastelholma lost its administrative status.