Today’s castle of Hreljin represents remains of a medieval town Hreljin, therefore it is considered Hreljin’s old town. It is proudly standing on a high, steep cliff above Bakarac, on the most western part of Vinodol. In the middle ages, the old town of Hreljin was an important residential, trade, defence, and governing centre.
The medieval town of Hreljin was mentioned for the first time in 1225 when the King Andrew II of Hungary donated the principality of Vinodol, which included the town of Hreljin, to the Frankopans. Hreljin was also recognized in 1288 during the composing of the Vinodol Code, whose signatory was Hreljin itself.
The old town Hreljin was abandoned due to the economic changes, particularly after the Karolina road was constructed, connecting Bakar to Karlovac. The last inhabitants of the old Hreljin were the three priests who eventually left the old town in 1790 and began living in the new, also known as today’s town of Hreljin. Since then, the old town of Hreljin was abandoned and left to reviving the glorious spirit of ancient times.
In that sense, today’s visitors of the castle of Hreljin could scenically perceive from the town’s ruins (which was being created from the 13th to the 16th century), its size and appearance, and from that conclude about its former importance.From the given remains, except for the remains of the town’s walls and various other facilities, two church facilities had been preserved up until today, to be more exact, the bell tower of St. Jurje Church along with ruins of the given church, and the Chapel of Blažene Djevice Marije (Virgin Mary). This Chapel of Virgin Mary is particularly important for the people of new Hreljin, as it is the only structure that remains from the old town of Hreljin. Its importance is religious as well, so a tradition of celebrating Our Lady of Snow each August 5th is kept.References:
Royal Palace of Naples was one of the four residences near Naples used by the Bourbon Kings during their rule of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1734-1860): the others were the palaces of Caserta, Capodimonte overlooking Naples, and the third Portici, on the slopes of Vesuvius.
Construction on the present building was begun in the 17th century by the architect Domenico Fontana. Intended to house the King Philip III of Spain on a visit never fulfilled to this part of his kingdom, instead it initially housed the Viceroy Fernando Ruiz de Castro, count of Lemos. By 1616, the facade had been completed, and by 1620, the interior was frescoed by Battistello Caracciolo, Giovanni Balducci, and Belisario Corenzio. The decoration of the Royal Chapel of Assumption was not completed until 1644 by Antonio Picchiatti.
In 1734, with the arrival of Charles III of Spain to Naples, the palace became the royal residence of the Bourbons. On the occasion of his marriage to Maria Amalia of Saxony in 1738, Francesco De Mura and Domenico Antonio Vaccaro helped remodel the interior. Further modernization took place under Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. In 1768, on the occasion of his marriage to Maria Carolina of Austria, under the direction of Ferdinando Fuga, the great hall was rebuilt and the court theater added. During the second half of the 18th century, a 'new wing' was added, which in 1927 became the Vittorio Emanuele III National Library. By the 18th century, the royal residence was moved to Reggia of Caserta, as that inland town was more defensible from naval assault, as well as more distant from the often-rebellious populace of Naples.
During the Napoleonic occupation the palace was enriched by Joachim Murat and his wife, Caroline Bonaparte, with Neoclassic decorations and furnishings. However, a fire in 1837 damaged many rooms, and required restoration from 1838 to 1858 under the direction of Gaetano Genovese. Further additions of a Party Wing and a Belvedere were made in this period. At the corner of the palace with San Carlo Theatre, a new facade was created that obscured the viceroyal palace of Pedro de Toledo.
In 1922, it was decided to transfer here the contents of the National Library. The transfer of library collections was made by 1925.
The library suffered from bombing during World War II and the subsequent military occupation of the building caused serious damage. Today, the palace and adjacent grounds house the famous Teatro San Carlo, the smaller Teatrino di Corte (recently restored), the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, a museum, and offices, including those of the regional tourist board.