The castle of Drivenik is first mentioned in 1228 as one of the co-signers of the Vinodol Code. From the 13th century the castle was the seat of the district administration, and upon the arrival of the Frankopans, their deputy Dragoljub resided there in 1288. In the 16th century (1571 based on an inscription on its walls) the castle was expanded in size and in the style of Renaissance fortresses it received round towers on its corners. Then in 1577, the castle was ruled by the noble family Zrinski.
The construction of the road in 1746 linked Drivenik to Novi Vinodolski and Bakar. This allowed the inhabitants to move from the hilltop down into the valley where present day Drivenik village developed along the roadway. Ultimately the castle was abandoned as an active settlement, only the church of Sveti Dujam (St. Domnius) and its cemetery remained as active properties.
Near the castle is the chapel of St. Stephen, built probably at the end of the 16th century with its tower containing three bells. The church has three building phases: Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque. The church originally contained a late Gothic period 'Pieta' sculpture titled the 'Mourning of Christ' and a Baroque period wood carved 'Golden Altar'. Today both are in the Museum of Art and Crafts in Zagreb.
The chapel of St. Martin is situated at the cemetery. It has Baroque frescoes dating from the 18th century. On its wall is a fresco 'Taken down from the Cross'. There is the Way of the Cross with four shrines near the cemetery and at its end Calvary is marked with three high crosses dating from 1768. The cemetery also contains a monument to fallen fighters from World War II.
The parish church of Sveti Dujam (St. Domnius) contains three naves and a bell-tower in the front. Originally it was built with one nave, without the open bell-tower. Sveti Dujam's bell tower was built in 1806 and the entrance beneath the bell tower was constructed in 1846.
The sanctuary was decorated by Anton Cej in 1894 when the main marble altar was constructed. The church floor contains burial vaults with the remains of a prominent local family Klarić (Gaspar 1653 and Marko 1753). The church underwent partial restoration in 1968.References:
Dating from the 15th century, Kisimul is the only significant surviving medieval castle in the Outer Hebrides. It was the residence of the chief of the Macneils of Barra, who claimed descent from the legendary Niall of the Nine Hostages. Tradition tells of the Macneils settling in Barra in the 11th century, but it was only in 1427 that Gilleonan Macneil comes on record as the first lord. He probably built the castle that dominates the rocky islet, and in its shadow a crew house for his personal galley and crew. The sea coursed through Macneil veins, and a descendant, Ruari ‘the Turbulent’, was arrested for piracy of an English ship during King James VI’s reign in the later 16th century.
Heavy debts eventually forced the Macneil chiefs to sell Barra in 1838. However, a descendant, Robert Lister Macneil, the 45th Chief, repurchased the estate in 1937, and set about restoring his ancestral seat. It passed into Historic Scotland’s care in 2000.
The castle dates essentially from the 15th century. It takes the form of a three-storey tower house. This formed the residence of the clan chief. An associated curtain wall fringed the small rock on which the castle stood, and enclosed a small courtyard in which there are ancillary buildings. These comprised a feasting hall, a chapel, a tanist’s house and a watchman’s house. Most were restored in the 20th century, the tanist’s house serving as the family home of the Macneils. A well near the postern gate is fed with fresh water from an underground seam. Outside the curtain wall, beside the original landing-place, are the foundations of the crew house, where the sailors manning their chief’s galley had their quarters.