Inowłódz Castle was built by king Casimir the Great in 1356-1366. Its function was to protect the customs chamber located on the Pilica ford, lying on the trade route running from Lwów, through Sandomierz to Toruń. Inowłódz and his ford were of strategic importance, cutting in between Mazovia and Lesser Poland.
The first recorded castle castellan was Piotr Tłuk from Strykowie family. At the end of the fourteenth century, the castle belonged to the Niemirowie family, however, Władysław Jagiełło bought it and due to its important location, restored to royal property. In connection with the deterioration of relations with prince Siemowit IV, the king predicted a threat from Mazovia and wanted to have an important, border stronghold. At the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, he visited Inowłódz many times, presumably controlling the castle’s repairs and its reconstruction. The interior development was considerably expanded, perhaps to increase the larger crew.
In 1515, the castle was bought by Adam Drzewicki, a representative of a wealthy Polish noble family, and in the mid-seventeenth century, the Lipski family became its owner. In times of Drzewickis, after 1563, the second significant reconstruction of the castle was carried out, caused by the fire that destroyed the building. As a result of the Polish-Swedish war in 1655-1657, the castle was destroyed and gradually fell into ruin.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.