The history of the Toszek Castle dates back to the tenth-eleventh century, when an early defensive castle was located on the castle's grounds. The castle was built two centuries later, in about the year 1222. When the Kingdom of Poland was under feudal fragmentation, the castle housed the following Silesian dukes and castellans. The most important part of the castle's being, was that under the rule of Duke Przemysław Toszecki, of the Oświęcim family line. After his death the castle became of property of the Dukes of Opole. In the sixteenth century, the castle was the property of the Habsburgs. Which gave the castle to do Redernów family, which they bought in 1592. In between 1638-1707 the castle was ruled by the Colonna family, which had made a full-scale reconstruction of the castle - by which the castle became a magnate residence, the first one in Upper Silesia. The following owners were: Johann Dietrich von Peterswald, Count Franciszek Karol Kotuliński, Posadowski family, and finally Adolf von Eichendorff.
In 1797, the castle was sold to Count Franciszek Adam Gaschinów. Shortly after, in 1811, the castle burned down and became a ruin. In 1840 the ruins were bought by Abraham Guradze, and the Guradze family maintained possession of the castle until World War II, when Abraham's great-grandson Count Kurt von Guradze bequeathed the castle to the youth of Poland. The castle was finally partially rebuilt in the 1950s and 1960s. Today, the castle houses a centre of culture, and a primary wedding celebration venue.References:
Heraclea Lyncestis was an ancient Greek city in Macedon, ruled later by the Romans. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon in the middle of the 4th century BC. The city was named in honor of the mythological hero Heracles. The name Lynkestis originates from the name of the ancient kingdom, conquered by Philip, where the city was built.
Heraclea was a strategically important town during the Hellenistic period, as it was at the edge of Macedon"s border with Epirus to the west and Paeonia to the north, until the middle of the 2nd century BC, when the Romans conquered Macedon and destroyed its political power. The main Roman road in the area, Via Egnatia went through Heraclea, and Heraclea was an important stop. The prosperity of the city was maintained mainly due to this road.
The Roman emperor Hadrian built a theatre in the center of the town, on a hill, when many buildings in the Roman province of Macedonia were being restored. It began being used during the reign of Antoninus Pius. Inside the theatre there were three animal cages and in the western part a tunnel. The theatre went out of use during the late 4th century AD, when gladiator fights in the Roman Empire were banned, due to the spread of Christianity, the formulation of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the abandonment of, what was then perceived as, pagan rituals and entertainment.
In the early Byzantine period (4th to 6th centuries AD) Heraclea was an important episcopal centre. A small and a great basilica, the bishop"s residence, and a funerary basilica and the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of very rich floral and figurative iconography; these well preserved mosaics are often regarded as fine examples of the early Christian art period.
The city was sacked by Ostrogoth/Visigoth forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 AD and again in 479 AD. It was restored in the late 5th and early 6th century. When an earthquake struck in 518 AD, the inhabitants of Heraclea gradually abandoned the city. Subsequently, at the eve of the 7th century, the Dragovites, a Slavic tribe pushed down from the north by the Avars, settled in the area. The last coin issue dates from ca. 585, which suggests that the city was finally captured by the Slavs. As result, in place of the deserted city theatre several huts were built.
The Episcopacy Residence was excavated between 1970 and 1975. The western part was discovered first and the southern side is near the town wall. The luxury rooms are located in the eastern part. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th rooms all have mosaic floors. Between the 3rd and 4th rooms there is a hole that led to the eastern entrance of the residence. The hole was purposefully created between the 4th and 6th century.