Rossano Cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Rossano-Cariati. The cathedral was built in the 11th century, with substantial reconstruction in the 18th and 19th centuries. It has a central nave and two side-aisles, terminating in three apses. The bell tower and the baptismal font date from the 14th century, while the other artworks and furnishings are of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The cathedral houses an ancient image of the Madonna Acheropita, an image of the Madonna and Child supposedly discovered in the cathedral plaster and not painted by human hand, which is dated to somewhere between about 580 and the first half of the 8th century.
In the sacristy in 1879 was discovered the Codex Purpureus Rossanensis ('Rossano Gospels'), a Greek evangeliary of the 5th or 6th century of Middle Eastern origin (probably Antioch), which was probably brought to Rossano by a monk taking refuge from the Arab invasions of the Middle East during the 9th and 10th centuries.
The manuscript comprises 188 leaves of parchment dyed purple containing the Gospels of Matthew and Mark and the Epistula ad Carpianum (a letter from Eusebius of Caesarea to a Christian named Carpianus). Although it is mutilated and anonymous, the manuscript is perhaps the most representative testimony of the Byzantine connections of Rossano. The texts are in gold and silver ink, with 15 miniatures showing the most important moments in the life and preaching of Jesus.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.