The Luynes aqueduct is a former Gallo-Roman bridge aqueduct located in Luynes, France. The remains show a stack of five arches and it is the most famous Roman monument in the Department of Indre-et-Loire, despite its modest dimensions. It is also one of the best preserved of the Northern aqueducts. It was classified a historical monument in 1862 and is owned by the town of Luynes.
It originally had a total length of 1,825 metres, almost in a straight line, including 525 metres of raised causeway. Its underground portion, and in particular its final journey, passes the hamlet of Villeronde. Only a portion of the aqueduct-bridge is now visible as it passes through the Valley of the Arennes.
The actual channel for the water is masonry and not a lead or terracotta piping and has a slope of 1.5 cm to 2.9 m per kilometre. The maximum height of the arches of the aqueduct is 8.90 m.
The remains of the aqueduct-bridge are located 1.5 km northeast of the centre of Luynes, in Indre-et-Loire. It has a general orientation of north-northeast to south-southwest, taking water from the now dry Pie Noire, and is believed to have supplied water to ancient Luynes, or even Caesarodunum.
It has been conjectured, however, that the aqueduct was privately owned and serviced the complex of private villas at Sainte-Roselle. Its construction has not yet been dated with certainty; the construction style would indicate the 2nd or 3rd century, like the resort that it fed.
It remained in use until the 12th or 13th century and has been the subject of several repair campaigns, especially at the beginning of the 10th century, under Charles the Simple, which is why it has survived so well, even if number of stones of its collapsed batteries had to be recovered and used. This suggests that its use has changed throughout this period, despite the abandonment of the seaside resort of Sainte-Roselle.References:
First record of Kastelholma (or Kastelholm) castle is from the year 1388 in the contract of Queen Margaret I of Denmark, where a large portion of the inheritance of Bo Jonsson Grip was given to the queen. The heyday of the castle was in the 15th and 16th centuries when it was administrated by Danish and Swedish kings and stewards of the realms. Kastelhoma was expanded and enhanced several times.
In the end of 16th century castle was owned by the previous queen Catherine Jagellon (Stenbock), an enemy of the King of Sweden Eric XIV. King Eric conquered Kastelholma in 1599 and all defending officers were taken to Turku and executed. The castle was damaged under the siege and it took 30 years to renovate it.
In 1634 Åland was joined with the County of Åbo and Björneborg and Kastelholma lost its administrative status.