The Bečov medieval castle was founded in the first half of the 14th century. The first reliable reference to the castle dates back to 1349. There were several stages of the castle construction. First, the bergfried or defence tower and the residential palace were built in the place of today´s upper chateau. After 1352, the construction of the tower that was originally going to have a residential function started. However, the plan was changed and the Chapel of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary was created in the space of three tower floors. The altar side was not east but north-oriented, due to the layout. There is a unique set of al secco wall paintings (painting on dry plaster) originating from around 1360.
After 1356, a representative residential tower, the so-called keep (one of the biggest ones in Bohemia) was built near the chapel tower. The walls of the castle lord´s private chamber were covered in late-Gothic paintings. The residential and chapel towers were connected by a rampart.
In 1495, the castle was acquired by Pluhs of Rabštejn who made significant contributions to the construction development of the castle thanks to their wealth gained by tin mining in Slavkovský les. They modified the keep interior and rebuilt the oldest part behind the bergfried to the Renaissance form; these buildings are still referred to as the Pluh Houses. They connected the keep with the chapel by a representative dining room where social events such as feasts and banquets were held.
During the Thirty Years´ War, in 1624, the Questenberks became the Bečov manor owners and used the castle mostly for farming. Under their possession, the castle was taken over by the Emperor´s garrison that stayed here until 1648, when the town and the castle were conquered by General Königsmark who captured the soldiers.
After the war experience, the Questenberks had a cannon bastion built above the moat to improve defence, which was incorporated in the octagonal Baroque castle tower in the 18th century. In 1752 Adam Questenberk died and the property is inherited by Dominik Ondřej Kaunitz jr. (nephew of J. A. Questenberk´s second wife).
In 1813, the Bečov manor was bought by Friedrich August Beaufort-Spontin who saw the future of his family not in France and Belgium but in the revolution-struck Austria. And it was his son, Alfred Beaufort-Spontin, who bought the St. Maurus Reliquary from the Church in 1838.
Alfred Beaufort-Spontin contributed to the history of Bečov by extensive chateau repairs and the contemplated romantic reconstruction of the medieval castle. The original plan to connect the castle to the Baroque chateau was designed by architect Josef Zítek. Due to high costs, only the St. Peter´s chateau chapel was reconstructed, as you can see on Route No. 2.
Thanks to Alfred´s grandson Heinrich George and his wife Adelheid Sylva-Tarouca in particular, a vast landscape park was built in Bečov, which used to be called the second Průhonice.
In the interwar period, Duke Heinrich Beaufort-Spontin was an NSDAP member. Thanks to his cooperation with the Nazis during WWII, the Beaufort-Spontin family was forced to leave the manor in Bečov nad Teplou based on the presidential decree of 25 October 1945 on Confiscation of Enemy Property.
After WWII the chateau was used as a school. In 1969 the whole castle and chateau district was assigned to the Pilsen Historical Institute and a gradual reconstruction started. The work culminated in 1996 when the Baroque chateau was opened to the public. First there was an exhibition of West-Bohemian Gothic, later a permanent exhibition was installed from the returned house contents. Now it is located on the second chateau floor as the first floor is dedicated to a unique presentation of 'the finding of the century' - the Romanesque St. Maurus Reliquary.References:
The Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls was part of the federal sanctuary of the three Gauls dedicated to the cult of Rome and Augustus celebrated by the 60 Gallic tribes when they gathered at Lugdunum (Lyon). The amphitheatre was built at the foot of the La Croix-Rousse hill at what was then the confluence of the Rhône and Saône.
Excavations have revealed a basement of three elliptical walls linked by cross-walls and a channel surrounding the oval central arena. The arena was slightly sloped, with the building"s south part supported by a now-vanished vault. The arena"s dimensions are 67,6m by 42m. This phase of the amphitheatre housed games which accompanied the imperial cult, with its low capacity (1,800 seats) being enough for delegations from the 60 Gallic tribes.
The amphitheatre was expanded at the start of the 2nd century. Two galleries were added around the old amphitheatre, raising its width from 25 metres to 105 metres and its capacity to about 20,000 seats. In so doing it made it a building open to the whole population of Lugdunum and its environs.