The Church of St. Nicholas (Kostel svatého Mikuláše ) is a three-aisled basilica in Cheb, built in the 13th century. The first written mention of the church refers to the year 1239, when one of the side altars was supposedly consecrated. In 1258 the emperor ceded the patronage rights to the Teutonic Order , which retained it until the end of the 16th century.
The lower parts of both towers and the west portal are mainly preserved from the original building. After a fire in 1270, the old apse was replaced by an early Gothic presbytery. In the middle of the 15th century wealthy citizens got involved in the renovation of the church, which was realized between 1456 and 1476. The municipal works foreman built a monumental three-aisled hall with 14 altars, 50 meters long, 30 meters wide and 21 meters Height, which master Lukas of Nuremberg painted.
After the fire in 1742, two towers with baroque domes were raised according to a design by the local builder Balthasar Neumann and adorned with a baroque onion roof. After a fire in 1809, the church received a historicist interior in neo-Gothic style (altar , choir stalls and organ).
During a US air bomb attack on April 20, 1945, the Balthasar Neumann church towers burned down and were not reconstructed. The church was given its present shape after restoration work in 1966 and thanks to a city foundation in summer 2008.
From the old furnishings of the church, a Romanesque baptismal font and six Gothic sculptures on both side altars have been preserved. There is a Gothic tabernacle in the presbytery. There are two Renaissance tombstones in the south porch. Of the remains of the former lavish Baroque furnishings, the large picture Adoration of the Shepherds above the north entrance, the Crucified above the south entrance and a depiction of the transfer of the remains of the Roman martyr Vincent to the church in 1693 are striking. Most of the furnishings, which also include the glass windows and the organ from Martin Zaus' workshop , come from the first (1862/64) and, above all, the second neo-Gothic redesign (1891/94).References:
The Château du Haut-Koenigsbourg is situated in a strategic area on a rocky spur overlooking the Upper Rhine Plain, it was used by successive powers from the Middle Ages until the Thirty Years' War when it was abandoned. From 1900 to 1908 it was rebuilt at the behest of the German kaiser Wilhelm II. Today it is a major tourist site, attracting more than 500,000 visitors a year.
The first records of a castle built by the Hohenstaufens date back to 1147. The fortress changed its name to Koenigsburg (royal castle) around 1157. The castle was handed over to the Tiersteins by the Habsburgs following its destruction in 1462. They rebuilt and enlarged it, installing a defensive system designed to withstand artillery fire.
The fortification work accomplished over the 15th century did not suffice to keep the Swedish artillery at bay during the Thirty Years War, and the defences were overrun.