The Medieval Castle of Tilos is located to the north of Megalo Chorio, the capital village of the island. Built atop a hill by the Knights of Saint John, during the late Byzantine period, this medieval castle offers spectacular views across the bay of Agios Antonios and a late-afternoon visit probably offers one of the best sunsets on the island. The church of Archangel Michael was built within the castle complex in the post-Byzantine period.
An entire village was once built within the castle walls to protect from the pirates who plundered the Aegean in the Middle Ages and it was not until the 18th century, when piracy was suppressed, that many of the inhabitants started to migrate down and settle closer to the foothill.
The castle and the church enclosed within the walls were built over the remains of a Hellenistic acropolis which included a temple dedicated to Apollo and Athena. The imposing castle had a triangular ground plan, but nothing much remains of it except for the external wall, some ancient and medieval ruins, cisterns and the ruins of the church along with some of its 14th-15th-century frescoes. To the east of the Castle, you can find the ruins of the Messaria fortress, built around 1366 by the Knights of Saint John.
The fortress protected the road leading towards the fertile plains of the island. Within its massive walls, the ruins of several buildings and of a little church are found. The remains of a Byzantine settlement and of small chapels dating back to the 13th century can be found close to the fortress. The walls of the churches are covered with frescoes. Above this fortress, there lies the famous Charkadio Cave, where the fossils of a pygmy elephant were unearthed in 1971.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.