The Jajce Mithraeum is a temple dedicated to the Persian invisible sun god, Mithra. It was rediscovered in an archaeological dig in 1931. The temple dates to the early 4th century AD, although it could be as ancient as the 2nd century AD with repairs undertaken during the early 4th century AD. This particular Mithraeum is one of the best preserved sites in Europe.
Mithra was worshipped throughout the Roman era, from the late Republic to the later Imperial era. The cult of Mithraism spread from the Middle East to other parts of the Roman Empire throughout the Mediterranean basin, at first by military-political adventurers, travelers, slaves and merchants from the Orient. Later, Mithraism was spread by soldiers whose legions came into contact with the followers of the cult in the East.
The Jajce site is a typical spelaea. Mithraism followers typically sought to set up their places of worship in caves. In absence of such topographical features, they excavated the soil and built small single-celled temple (spelaea) to reinforce the impression of a cave.
The temple is now protected by a modern steel-and-girder cage with glass walls that allows visitors to see inside without entering. Visitors can enter with advance notice by contacting the Ethnological Museum of Jajce.
The Jajce Mithraeum is declared a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and, including the old Jajce walled city core, the waterfall and other individual sites outside of the old city perimeter, as part of wider areal designated as The natural and architectural ensemble of Jajce, proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site list.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.