Travnik Castle, locally known as Stari Grad Castle (old town castle), is a medieval town-fortress complex in the town of Travnik. Dating back to pre-Ottoman Bosnia when the former Christian Kingdom ruled the region, there is no historical data as to the construction date of the Medieval fortress. However, the construction type and other characteristics indicate that it was built sometime in the second half of the 14th century or in the first half of the 15th century. As a result It was probably built during the time of the Bosnian Kings Tvrtko II or Ostoja, and then rebuilt and expanded during the time of Stephen Thomas. The Travnik fortress was erected before the arrival of the Ottoman Turks for the purpose of defense, as the Ottomans penetrated deeper into Bosnia. Travnik itself was one of a number of fortified towns in the region built for this purpose, but was built too late to stem the Ottoman advance.

In 1462 King Stephen Tomašević was accepted as a vassal of Hungary and thereafter refused to pay tribute to the Porte. As a consequence both Ottoman and Christian sides began war preparations.[6] Sultan Mehmed II gathered an army of 150,000 soldiers in Adrianopolis and departed for the Lower Danube area in April 1463. As a part of a diversion attack, he commanded Ali Bey Mihaloğlu to invade southern lands of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bey crossed into Syrmia, but was pushed back by Andrew Pongrácz, Master of the cupbearers. He then made a flanking move to the heart of Hungary until he reached Temesvár, where he encountered John Pongrác Voivode of Transylvania and was defeated in a fierce battle.[8] Meanwhile, Mehmet II had advanced on Travnik, which he besieged and took. That year the Bosnian Kingdom fell to the Ottomans.

From 1463, until 1878, Travnik was under Ottoman rule, becoming part of the Sanjak of Bosnia. The conquering Ottomans saw the significance this strategic location represented for the military, later developing and expanded the castle, transforming it into a fortress with watchtowers. Today’s walls represent that result.

In 1878, Travnik (as with the rest of Bosnia) came under Austro-Hungarian control. During the period of the First World War, Travnik was behind the front lines and the fortress saw no action; however military activities were carried out within its walls. The town was a military garrison of the Austro-Hungarian army as Travnik was in central Bosnia and very well connected by rail. The old train was used for transportation of soldiers, officers and wounded soldiers, while military equipment, weapons, and ammunition were brought in and distributed.

Today, the castle is the best-preserved in Bosnia and a national monument. It has a small museum dedicated to its history and an ethnographic section inside.

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Details

Founded: 14th century
Category: Castles and fortifications in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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en.wikipedia.org

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User Reviews

Angelia Lee (3 months ago)
awesome Castle in Travnik.
khalid jassim (13 months ago)
Small castle Good to visit U can see the city from the top
Emir (14 months ago)
Great place to visit and see history of that amazing city.
talal alsnafi (2 years ago)
Old castle in the hart of travnik near shops and hotels
Gürkan Kurt (4 years ago)
A great city and a great location. She's got a story that has come out of the history pages and is almost a reality. natural beauty never touched. Everything from the madrasa to the castle is great. The city of princes should be called a place.hir ve harika bir konum.
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Walled city of Jajce

The Walled City of Jajce is a medieval fortified nucleus of Jajce in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with citadel high above town on top of pyramidal-shaped steep hill, enclosed with approximately 1,300 metres long defensive walls,. It is one of the best preserved fortified capitals of the Bosnian Kingdom, the last stronghold before the kingdom dissolved under the pressure of military advancement at the onset of Ottoman Empire takeover.

The entire complex of the Walled city of Jajce, with the citadel, city ramparts, watchtower Medvjed-kula, and two main city gate-towers lies on the southern slope of a large rocky pyramid at the confluence of the rivers Pliva and Vrbas, enclosed by these rivers from the south-southwest, with the bed of the Pliva, and east-southeast by the river Vrbas gorge.

History

The fortress was built by Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, the founder of Jajce. However, the city became the seat of the Bosnian kings, hence the royal coat of arms decoration on the citadel entrance. A part of the wall was built by the Hungarian King, while the Ottomans erected the powder magazine. The walls are high and the castle was built on a hill that is egg shaped, the rivers Pliva and Vrbas also protect the castle. There is no rampart on the south and west.

Jajce was first built in the 14th century and served as the capital of the independent Kingdom of Bosnia during its time. The town has gates as fortifications, as well as a castle with walls which lead to the various gates around the town. About 10–20 kilometres from Jajce lies the Komotin Castle and town area which is older but smaller than Jajce. It is believed the town of Jajce was previously Komotin but was moved after the Black Death.

The first reference to the name of Jajce in written sources is from the year 1396, but the fortress had already existed by then. Jajce was the residence of the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomasevic; the Ottomans besieged the town and executed him, but held it only for six months, before the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus seized it at the siege of Jajce and established the Banovina of Jajce.

Skenderbeg Mihajlović besieged Jajce in 1501, but without success because he was defeated by Ivaniš Korvin assisted by Zrinski, Frankopan, Karlović and Cubor.

During this period, Queen Catherine restored the Saint Mary"s Church in Jajce, today the oldest church in town. Eventually, in 1527, Jajce became the last Bosnian town to fall to Ottoman rule. The town then lost its strategic importance, as the border moved further north and west.

Jajce passed with the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the administration of Austria-Hungary in 1878. The Franciscan monastery of Saint Luke was completed in 1885.

Surroundings

The Walled city of Jajce is located at the confluence of the Pliva and Vrbas rivers. It was founded and started developing in the Middle Ages and acquired its final form during the Ottoman period. There are several churches and mosques built in different times during different rules, making Jajce a rather diverse town in this aspect. It is declared National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and, as the old Jajce city core, including the waterfall, and other individual sites outside the walled city perimeter, such as the Jajce Mithraeum, it is designated as The natural and architectural ensemble of Jajce and proposed as such for inscription into the UNESCO"s World Heritage Site list. The bid for inscription is currently placed on the UNESCO Tentative list.