Pavone Castle was originally built between the 9th and the 11th century. At the beginning of the 13th century, the castle went to the Romano family and, several years later, Oberto, the new bishop of Ivrea, got it back. In the 14th century, its first and major reconstruction took place. In the 15th century, the castle was abandoned, but, at the end of the century, Bishop Bonifacio Ferrero gave the go-ahead for new reconstruction: building a staircase, enlarging the residential area, and recuperating the external tower.
Wars between Francesco I and Carlo V caused new damage and destruction to the castle, which, following the Napoleonic invasions, was almost completely destroyed.
In 1888, the castle started undergoing renovation works under the direction of architect Alfredo d'Andrade, which were later completed, after his death, by his son Ruy d'Andrade. Several years ago, the castle was turned into a hotel-restaurant and Convention Center.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.