Palazzo Carignano is a historical building in the centre of Turin, Italy, which houses the Museum of the Risorgimento. It was a private residence of the Princes of Carignano, after whom it is named. Its rounded façade is different from other façades of the same structure.
In 1997, it was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list along with 13 other residences of the House of Savoy.
The construction of the Palazzo Carignano was ordered by Prince Emmanuel Philibert, son of Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano and his French wife Marie de Bourbon. The Prince commissioned architect Guarino Guarini to design a suitable residence for his home and the cadet house of the reigning House of Savoy.
Guarini designed the structure in the shape of a square, with a straight and restrained east façade and an elliptical façade on the west. Guarini also added a forecourt at the center of the palace. Construction began in 1679, when the Prince was 51 years old.
The decorations over the windows of the piano nobile recall the campaign of the Carignano family with Carignan-Salières Regiment against the Iroquois in 1667. The interior has always been described as lavish and has splendid frescoes and stucco decorations.
Among the frescoes are some by Stefano Legnani, called il Legnanino. The main stairwell is decorated with busts by Pietro Somazzi.
The building, constructed in brick in a typical Baroque style, has an elliptical main façade. This façade represents the only example of civic architecture making use of the undulating 'concave – convex – concave' rhythm established by Francesco Borromini in the church of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome.
The Palazzo was the birthplace of Marie-Louise, princesse de Lamballe in 1749 – confidant of Marie Antoinette and for whom she died in 1792. Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano was born there in 1770. It was also the birthplace of the first King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II in 1820.
From 1848 to 1861 the palace was used as the House of Deputies of the Subalpine Parliament. In 1861, with the creation of the parliament of the newly unified Kingdom of Italy, the room was not large enough to host the House of Deputies, which was moved elsewhere.References:
The castle of La Iruela, small but astonishing, is located on the top of a steep crag in Sierra de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park. From the castle, impressive views of the surrounding area and of the town can be enjoyed.
The keep dates from the Christian era. It has a square base and small dimensions and is located at the highest part of the crag.
There are some other enclosures within the tower that create a small alcázar which is difficult to access.
In a lower area of the castle, protected with defensive remains of rammed earth and irregular masonry, is an old Muslim farmstead.
After a recent restoration, an open-air theater has been built on La Iruela castle enclosure. This theater is a tribute to the Greek and Classic Eras and holds various artistic and cultural shows throughout the year.
The first traces of human activity in La Iruela area are dated from the Copper Age. An intense occupation continued until the Bronze Age.
Originally, La Iruela (like Cazorla) was a modest farmstead. From the 11th century, a wall and a small fortress were built on the hill to protect the farmers.
Around 1231, don Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, Archbishop of Toledo, conquered La Iruela and made it part of the Adelantamiento de Cazorla. Over the Muslim fortress, the current fortress was built.
Once the military use of the fortress ended, it was used as cemetery.