The Krakowska Gate, one of the symbols of the city, was constructed in the 14th century along with the city walls. Its name originates from the historic route leading from Cracow via Lublin to Vilnius. It was an observation point for the fire brigade, and the city's bugle-call was played from it as well. It was also inhabited by the clockmaker servicing the gate's clock. The basic framework of the Gothic walls is made of brick and stone, and the superstructure of vitrified brick. The octagonal, plastered tower was construed in the mid-16th century. The structure is covered by a Baroque dome with the SAR /Stanislaus Augustus Rex/ monogram and date 1782, which date back to the period of the gate’s reconstruction carried out by Dominik Merlini.
Its present appearance is a result of the maintenance and construction works in the years 1959-1964 when the gate's historic design was restored and the interiors were adapted to meet the needs of the Museum of History of the city of Lublin.References:
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere is one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I.
The inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I (217-222) on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers. The area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers.
The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II.