The Pomeranian Dukes Castle in Słupsk was erected in 1507. At first it was a gothic building, much smaller than now. In the same year duke Bolesław X rebuilt it and enlarged in the Renaissance style. The castle complex consists of the castle itself, a small, half-timbered building housing the board of directors of the Museum of Central Pomerania, the Castle Mill, the Fishermen Gate (the remains of Słupsk fortifications, the Richter’s Granary, moved element by element from the place it originally was built at the intersection of Kopernika and Wolności streets) and St. Jack’s church. The Castle Mill is one of the oldest operating industrial objects in Poland.
In the past the castle was a residence of Pomeranian dukes of the Griffin dynasty. While the Germans ruled in Słupsk, the object was used, alter alia, as wheat and weapons warehouse as well as a prison, which contributed to devastation thereof. After II World War it was restored and the tower’s cap was rebuilt. Today the castle serves as the seat of the Museum of Central Pomerania in Słupsk.
The castle kept its original design of a rectangle, its interior dimension being 17 x 35 meters. The plastered brick building consists of three floors covered with a hipped roof. Attached to the body of the castle, in the middle of the northwest façade is a polygonal tower covered with a multi-hipped cupola topped with a lantern. Next to the tower, in between second and third floor, there is a rather small, rectangular annex with arcaded loggia. The castle axis is defined by rectangular window openings, the corners of all façades emphasized by rustication. The southeast façade is divided into three by breaks reaching as far as first floor; in southern corner of this façade and in the southwestern façade there are three buttresses. In the southwestern façade there is a polygonal bay and it the northeastern a triangular one. All façades are topped by a beveled cornice. Inside partially and in the second floor only original barrel vaults with lunettes have been restored, and in the tower ribbed vault has been preserved. The entrance to the tower from the northern side leads to the museum rooms.References:
Heraclea Lyncestis was an ancient Greek city in Macedon, ruled later by the Romans. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon in the middle of the 4th century BC. The city was named in honor of the mythological hero Heracles. The name Lynkestis originates from the name of the ancient kingdom, conquered by Philip, where the city was built.
Heraclea was a strategically important town during the Hellenistic period, as it was at the edge of Macedon"s border with Epirus to the west and Paeonia to the north, until the middle of the 2nd century BC, when the Romans conquered Macedon and destroyed its political power. The main Roman road in the area, Via Egnatia went through Heraclea, and Heraclea was an important stop. The prosperity of the city was maintained mainly due to this road.
The Roman emperor Hadrian built a theatre in the center of the town, on a hill, when many buildings in the Roman province of Macedonia were being restored. It began being used during the reign of Antoninus Pius. Inside the theatre there were three animal cages and in the western part a tunnel. The theatre went out of use during the late 4th century AD, when gladiator fights in the Roman Empire were banned, due to the spread of Christianity, the formulation of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the abandonment of, what was then perceived as, pagan rituals and entertainment.
In the early Byzantine period (4th to 6th centuries AD) Heraclea was an important episcopal centre. A small and a great basilica, the bishop"s residence, and a funerary basilica and the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of very rich floral and figurative iconography; these well preserved mosaics are often regarded as fine examples of the early Christian art period.
The city was sacked by Ostrogoth/Visigoth forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 AD and again in 479 AD. It was restored in the late 5th and early 6th century. When an earthquake struck in 518 AD, the inhabitants of Heraclea gradually abandoned the city. Subsequently, at the eve of the 7th century, the Dragovites, a Slavic tribe pushed down from the north by the Avars, settled in the area. The last coin issue dates from ca. 585, which suggests that the city was finally captured by the Slavs. As result, in place of the deserted city theatre several huts were built.
The Episcopacy Residence was excavated between 1970 and 1975. The western part was discovered first and the southern side is near the town wall. The luxury rooms are located in the eastern part. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th rooms all have mosaic floors. Between the 3rd and 4th rooms there is a hole that led to the eastern entrance of the residence. The hole was purposefully created between the 4th and 6th century.