Kolomna Kremlin was built between 1525–1531 by the order of Vasily III to imitate the Moscow Kremlin and was equal to it in both size and beauty. On the territory of the Kolomna Kremlin there are the Dormition Cathedral (17th century), Tikhvinsky Cathedral, built in pseudo-Russian style, as well as the Novo-Golutvin and Brusensky monasteries, the Trinity Church, the Cross Cathedral and other historic buildings.
Kolomna Kremlin is surrounded by a brick wall, which was erected by the orders of Vasily III. Previously, it had 17 towers and four of them had gates. Of all the towers only six have survived. Only surviving gate is a Pyatnitsky Gate, which had once served as the main entrance to the city. The names of most towers of Kolomna Kremlin coincide with the Moscow’s. For example, it also has the Faceted Tower, so named because of its shape – rectangular from the inside, hexagonal on the outside. Now it is the Museum of Ancient Russian Martial Art.
In the center of the Kremlin there is the five-domed Dormition Cathedral rebuilt in 1672-1682 on the site of the former white stone building of Dmitry Donskoy’s time. To the north of the cathedral there stands a small Church of Resurrection. Earlier, it was connected with the palace. According to the legend, there, Dmitry Donskoy and Suzdal Princess Eudoxia were married. Brusensky monastery is no less interesting. It is the place of the revered Kazan icon of Our Lady, which, according to legend, is one of the direct copies of the miraculous Kazan icon. The monastery was founded around the tent-roofed church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, built in the 16th century by the orders of Ivan the Terrible to mark the capture of Kazan.
Particularly attractive for tourists is the so-called Marinkina Tower. This is the tallest tower in Kolomna. Its height is 31 meters, the diameter - about 13 meters. From the distance it looks round, although in reality it is decorated with 20 facets. On the top of it there are decorative loopholes. The eighth floors have 27 windows arranged in checkerboard pattern. It used to be the watchtower. The folk legend runs that in the time of the Great Troubles the wife of False Dmitry II, Marina Mnishek, was held prisoner. Allegedly, she hid the great treasures there. Unfortunately, Kolomna Kremlin has reached us in a sad condition. Only two fragments of the walls and 7 towers have survived. Once the stronghold protecting the city from enemy invasions, the mighty fortress could not defeat the time.References:
From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Since Duke Mislav of the Duchy of Croatia made Klis Fortress the seat of his throne in the middle of the 9th century, the fortress served as the seat of many Croatia"s rulers. The reign of his successor, Duke Trpimir I, the founder of the Croatian royal House of Trpimirović, is significant for spreading Christianity in the Duchy of Croatia. He largely expanded the Klis Fortress, and in Rižinice, in the valley under the fortress, he built a church and the first Benedictine monastery in Croatia. During the reign of the first Croatian king, Tomislav, Klis and Biograd na Moru were his chief residences.
In March 1242 at Klis Fortress, Tatars who were a constituent segment of the Mongol army under the leadership of Kadan suffered a major defeat while in pursuit of the Hungarian army led by King Béla IV. After their defeat by Croatian forces, the Mongols retreated, and Béla IV rewarded many Croatian towns and nobles with 'substantial riches'. During the Late Middle Ages, the fortress was governed by Croatian nobility, amongst whom Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the most significant. During his reign, the House of Šubić controlled most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia. Excluding the brief possession by the forces of Bosnian King, Tvrtko I, the fortress remained in Hungaro-Croatian hands for the next several hundred years, until the 16th century.
Klis Fortress is probably best known for its defense against the Ottoman invasion of Europe in the early 16th century. Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, as Kružić and his soldiers fought without allies against the Turks, the military faction of Uskoks was formed, which later became famous as an elite Croatian militant sect. Ultimately, the defenders were defeated and the fortress was occupied by the Ottomans in 1537. After more than a century under Ottoman rule, in 1669, Klis Fortress was besieged and seized by the Republic of Venice, thus moving the border between Christian and Muslim Europe further east and helping to contribute to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians restored and enlarged the fortress, but it was taken by the Austrians after Napoleon extinguished the republic itself in 1797. Today, Klis Fortress contains a museum where visitors to this historic military structure can see an array of arms, armor, and traditional uniforms.