In 1507 Vasily III gave the order to construct an oak fortress in Tula on the left bank of the Upa River. In 1514 in an oak fortress, like in the Moscow Kremlin, Vasily III issued an order to construct the 'stone city', built in 1520-1521.
In 1552, was besieged by the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray. At that time, Tsar Ivan IV was with campaign against Kazan. Urban population fought before the arrival of reinforcements from the tsar's army from Kolomna. In memory of these events in the Tula Kremlin has been established the foundation stone near the Tower of Ivanovskie Gate.
In the second half of the 16th century, around the stone Kremlin was created Posad - a wooden fortress that more than ten times more the size of the stone Kremlin. This area at the time was the boundary of Tula.
In 1605 bell informed the residents about the arrival of the False Dmitry I and Tula for two weeks turned into pseudo capital of Moscow State. It was here in the Kremlin, came to swear allegiance to the pretender boyars and nobles.
In 1607, during the Peasants' War, the Tula Kremlin became the refuge for Ivan Bolotnikov. Together with people loyal to him, he kept the Kremlin by his control for four months. In 1608 in the Tula Kremlin by Tsar Vasily Shuisky were besieged the leaders of the peasant movement - Ivan Bolotnikov and Ileyko Muromets. Kremlin stand very long siege but was taken due creation a dam of the bags to the ground on Upa River. Water from the river flooded the Kremlin, and the rebels surrendered. In memory of these events in 1953 in the Tula Kremlin was erected an obelisk.
Today Tula Kremlin consists of walls and nine gates and towers.References:
Manarola is a small town, a frazione of the comune of Riomaggiore. It is the second-smallest of the famous Cinque Terre towns frequented by tourists, with a population of 353.
Manarola may be the oldest of the towns in the Cinque Terre, with the cornerstone of the church, San Lorenzo, dating from 1338. The local dialect is Manarolese, which is marginally different from the dialects in the nearby area. The name 'Manarola' is probably a dialectical evolution of the Latin, 'magna rota'. In the Manarolese dialect this was changed to 'magna roea' which means 'large wheel', in reference to the mill wheel in the town.
Manarola's primary industries have traditionally been fishing and wine-making. The local wine, called Sciacchetrà, is especially renowned; references from Roman writings mention the high quality of the wine produced in the region.