In 1507 Vasily III gave the order to construct an oak fortress in Tula on the left bank of the Upa River. In 1514 in an oak fortress, like in the Moscow Kremlin, Vasily III issued an order to construct the 'stone city', built in 1520-1521.
In 1552, was besieged by the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray. At that time, Tsar Ivan IV was with campaign against Kazan. Urban population fought before the arrival of reinforcements from the tsar's army from Kolomna. In memory of these events in the Tula Kremlin has been established the foundation stone near the Tower of Ivanovskie Gate.
In the second half of the 16th century, around the stone Kremlin was created Posad - a wooden fortress that more than ten times more the size of the stone Kremlin. This area at the time was the boundary of Tula.
In 1605 bell informed the residents about the arrival of the False Dmitry I and Tula for two weeks turned into pseudo capital of Moscow State. It was here in the Kremlin, came to swear allegiance to the pretender boyars and nobles.
In 1607, during the Peasants' War, the Tula Kremlin became the refuge for Ivan Bolotnikov. Together with people loyal to him, he kept the Kremlin by his control for four months. In 1608 in the Tula Kremlin by Tsar Vasily Shuisky were besieged the leaders of the peasant movement - Ivan Bolotnikov and Ileyko Muromets. Kremlin stand very long siege but was taken due creation a dam of the bags to the ground on Upa River. Water from the river flooded the Kremlin, and the rebels surrendered. In memory of these events in 1953 in the Tula Kremlin was erected an obelisk.
Today Tula Kremlin consists of walls and nine gates and towers.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.