In 1507 Vasily III gave the order to construct an oak fortress in Tula on the left bank of the Upa River. In 1514 in an oak fortress, like in the Moscow Kremlin, Vasily III issued an order to construct the 'stone city', built in 1520-1521.
In 1552, was besieged by the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray. At that time, Tsar Ivan IV was with campaign against Kazan. Urban population fought before the arrival of reinforcements from the tsar's army from Kolomna. In memory of these events in the Tula Kremlin has been established the foundation stone near the Tower of Ivanovskie Gate.
In the second half of the 16th century, around the stone Kremlin was created Posad - a wooden fortress that more than ten times more the size of the stone Kremlin. This area at the time was the boundary of Tula.
In 1605 bell informed the residents about the arrival of the False Dmitry I and Tula for two weeks turned into pseudo capital of Moscow State. It was here in the Kremlin, came to swear allegiance to the pretender boyars and nobles.
In 1607, during the Peasants' War, the Tula Kremlin became the refuge for Ivan Bolotnikov. Together with people loyal to him, he kept the Kremlin by his control for four months. In 1608 in the Tula Kremlin by Tsar Vasily Shuisky were besieged the leaders of the peasant movement - Ivan Bolotnikov and Ileyko Muromets. Kremlin stand very long siege but was taken due creation a dam of the bags to the ground on Upa River. Water from the river flooded the Kremlin, and the rebels surrendered. In memory of these events in 1953 in the Tula Kremlin was erected an obelisk.
Today Tula Kremlin consists of walls and nine gates and towers.References:
Medvedgrad is a medieval fortified town located on the south slopes of Medvednica mountain, approximately halfway from the Croatian capital Zagreb to the mountain top Sljeme. For defensive purposes it was built on a hill, Mali Plazur, that is a spur of the main ridge of the mountain that overlooks the city. On a clear day the castle can be seen from far away, especially the high main tower. Below the main tower of the castle is Oltar Domovine (Altar of the homeland) which is dedicated to Croatian soldiers killed in the Croatian War of Independence.
In 1242, Mongols invaded Zagreb. The city was destroyed and burned to the ground. This prompted the building of Medvedgrad. Encouraged by Pope Innocent IV, Philip Türje, bishop of Zagreb, built the fortress between 1249 and 1254. It was later owned by bans of Slavonia. Notable Croatian and Hungarian poet and ban of Slavonia Janus Pannonius (Ivan Česmički) died in the Medvedgrad castle on March 27, 1472.
The last Medvedgrad owners and inhabitants was the Gregorijanec family, who gained possession of Medvedgrad in 1562. In 1574, the walls of Medvedgrad were reinforced, but after the 1590 Neulengbach earthquake, the fortress was heavily damaged and ultimately abandoned. It remained in ruins until the late 20th century, when it was partly restored and now offers a panoramic view of the city from an altitude of over 500 meters.