The Tobolsk Kremlin was founded in 1587 when Moscow encouraged the construction of stone buildings in the city. In 1683-1686, masons sent from Moscow and Veliky Ustyug built the stone St. Sophia-Assumption Cathedral. Around the beginning of the 18th century the stone walls and the towers of the Kremlin were built, as well as a number of buildings that have not survived to our days, standing on a westward line from St. Sophia-Assumption Cathedral: the Holy Trinity Cathedral, the Bishop's House, the Holy Gate with the Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh and the bell tower. The Siberian Metropolitan Paul (who, before the appointment to Tobolsk, was the Archimandrite of the Chudov Monastery in the Moscow Kremlin) supervised the construction. The cathedrals built under his supervision were cross-domed structures topped by five domes.
At the end of the 17th century construction work in the Kremlin was continued by Semyon Remezov, a cartographer who was also the first historian of Siberia. He had the Departmental Palace (1699–1704) built above the southern cliff of the hill and the Trading Arcades (1702–1706) in the northwestern corner of the Kremlin.
Knyaz M. Gagarin, appointed in 1708 first governor of the Siberian province, planned to create in the Kremlin impressive buildings for military administrative and commercial use, which should have constituted, together with the Sofia court a monumental center. In construction works were employed Swedish prisoners of war who were in exile in Tobolsk. To prevent the erosion of the mountain, the Tobol River was moved to the south for two versts. In 1712, by the project of Remezov was built the stone tower Demetrius gate and next to it, on the edge of the mountain, the Ascension church (destroyed in 1717).
Despite the 1714 ban of stone construction, work continued until 1718. After the execution of governor Gagarin, the Demetrius gate remained unfinished. In 1743-1746 was built the Church of the Intercession, accessory building of St Sophia-Assumption Cathedral. Walls and towers were gradually destroyed. In 1799 were built the stone retaining walls of St. Sophia gully and a new multi-tier bell tower - the tallest building of the city.
In 1939 the Tobolsk Kremlin has been recognized architectural historical monument, subject to state protection. In 1952, it was revealed a progressive deterioration of masonry and drafted the plan of restoration work. In 1961, the Tobolsk museum received the status of Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve.
In early 1970s there was the beginning of the restoration works. The walls and the towers were reconstructed.References:
The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc is a Baroque monument built in 1716–1754 in honour of God. The main purpose was a spectacular celebration of Catholic Church and faith, partly caused by feeling of gratitude for ending a plague, which struck Moravia between 1713 and 1715. The column was also understood to be an expression of local patriotism, since all artists and master craftsmen working on this monument were Olomouc citizens, and almost all depicted saints were connected with the city of Olomouc in some way. The column is the biggest Baroque sculptural group in the Czech Republic. In 2000 it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list.
The column is dominated by gilded copper sculptures of the Holy Trinity accompanied by the Archangel Gabriel on the top and the Assumption of the Virgin beneath it.
The base of the column, in three levels, is surrounded by 18 more stone sculptures of saints and 14 reliefs in elaborate cartouches. At the uppermost stage are saints connected with Jesus’ earth life – his mother’s parents St. Anne and St. Joachim, his foster-father St. Joseph, and St. John the Baptist, who was preparing his coming – who are accompanied by St. Lawrence and St. Jerome, saints to whom the chapel in the Olomouc town hall was dedicated. Three reliefs represent the Three theological virtues Faith, Hope, and Love.
Below them, the second stage is dedicated to Moravian saints St. Cyril and St. Methodius, who came to Great Moravia to spread Christianity in 863, St. Blaise, in whose name one of the main Olomouc churches is consecrated, and patrons of neighbouring Bohemia St. Adalbert of Prague and St. John of Nepomuk, whose following was very strong there as well.
In the lowest stage one can see the figures of an Austrian patron St. Maurice and a Bohemian patron St. Wenceslas, in whose names two important Olomouc churches were consecrated, another Austrian patron St. Florian, who was also viewed as a protector against various disasters, especially fire, St. John of Capistrano, who used to preach in Olomouc, St. Anthony of Padua, a member of the Franciscan Order, which owned an important monastery in Olomouc, and St. Aloysius Gonzaga, a patron of students. His sculpture showed that Olomouc was very proud of its university. Reliefs of all twelve apostles are placed among these sculptures.
The column also houses a small chapel inside with reliefs depicting Cain's offering from his crop, Abel's offering of firstlings of his flock, Noah's first burnt offering after the Flood, Abraham's offering of Isaac and of a lamb, and Jesus' death. The cities of Jerusalem and Olomouc can be seen in the background of the last mentioned relief.