The Dömötör tower is the oldest building in Szeged. The foundation was most probably laid during the 11th century, while the lower part was built (in Romanesque style) from the 12th century, and the upper part (Gothic style) from the 13th century. The tower was once part of the former St. Demetrius church, but today it stands in Dóm Square, in front of the much larger Votive Church of Szeged. The upper part was rebuilt from the original stones in 1926. The architecture of the tower is similar to another found in Southern France, or in the territory of the former Byzantine Empire.
On the upper part, there are 48 pointed windows in three levels (sixteen on each level, two on every side of the octagonal levels). On the lower part, a gate was cut and turned to a baptismal chapel in 1931.
Inside the tower, there is a fresco by Vilmos Aba-Novák of the baptism of Hungarians in the 11th century. Due to the mould growing on the rear wall, the baptismal chapel is no longer in use.
The tower's 'Gate of Life' was made by János Bille in 1931 and explains a Christian life through symbols. At the top and at the bottom, there are two numbers: 1272 and 1931. The former was thought to represent the year in which the upper part was built, while 1931 is when it was turned to a baptismal chapel.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.