Lindelbrunn Castle was founded in the mid-12th century, presumably as an imperial castle to defend the Trifels. Prior to that it may have been owned by the imperial church at Speyer. It is likely that the main construction phase of the castle with its palas and separate chapel dates to around 1190/1200. At that time, large halls and independent chapels were only built by relatively high-ranking lords; around 1200, not a single count had such a facilities. In 1274 the castle was transferred by King Rudolph of Habsburg to Counts Emich IV and Frederick III of Leiningen. In the course of time, Lindelbrunn became a joint-inheritance or Ganerbenburg. As a result of the enfeoffment of various parts of the castle, there were so many co-owners that disputes arose. In 1381, St. Nicholas' Chapel was first mentioned in a deed. In 1441 troopps of the Palatine prince-elector and the Bishop of Speyer, Reinhard von Helmstatt besieged the castle for seven weeks until a peaceful agreement ended the investment.
Shortly after Easter 1450, as a result of a feud and the seizure of Hans von Helmstadt, troops from the town of Landau and Bishopric of Speyer advanced on the castle. After four days of unsuccessful siege, Holzapfel was ransomed. In June that year, Count Emich VI of Leiningen-Hardenburg and his son, Frederick of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, besieged the castle, captured it and so ended the disputes.
During the German Peasants' War of 1525 the castle was razed by rebellious peasants of the Kleeburg Kolbenhaufen band. Since then it has remained unoccupied and fallen into ruins.
In 1963 the castle became the possession of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. In 1979 to 1981 comprehensive remediation measures were carried out which saw the remains of the detached chapel being uncovered and partially restored.
The most important visible remains are the preserved parts of the palas (around 1190/1200) in the southwest of the castle. The outer wall on the valley side is made of rusticated ashlars and has three niches with adjacent windows and fireplace that has not quite been faithfully reconstructed. The interior probably contain a large hall.
From the forester's lodge, Forsthaus Lindelbrunn, it is a 15 to 20 minute walk to the ruins of Lindelbrunn Castle. In clear weather there is an extensive 360-degree panoramic view which also takes in the imperial castle of Trifels.References:
Les Invalides is a complex of buildings containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building"s original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l"Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d"Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France"s war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte.
Louis XIV initiated the project in 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides. The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards. Jules Hardouin Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, and the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant"s designs after the elder architect"s death.
Shortly after the veterans" chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature. Inspired by St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708.
Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille later the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.
The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d"artillerie (Artillery Museum) was located within the building to be joined by the Historical Museum of the Armies in 1896. The two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l"armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris. The reason was that the adoption of a mainly conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service formerly required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose. The modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers.