Ryazan Kremlin, the oldest part of the city of Ryazan, is one of the oldest museums in Russia. Located on the top of a steep hill, it is surrounded by rivers and a dry moat.
Human settlement on the territory of the Kremlin had occurred during the Mesolithic Era. Slavic tribes had colonized these places already by the 6th-7th centuries. Closest to the fortress of the future settlement of Borkovskoye, people on the island of Oka led an active trade with the Byzantine Empire, East and West.
In the 11th century Pereyaslavl-Ryazan Kremlin was a fortified castle, located in the highest, north-western part of the modern architectural complex on the site of the present church of the Holy Spirit today, an area of 2 hectares. Around the fortress were various suburbs, and numerous neukreplёnnye settlement in which the peasants, fisherman, and poor artisans lived. Streets were paved with wood, and yards were located close to each other. A princes' tower apparently stood on the site of the modern Dukhovskoy church.
The area around the city was occupied by vast forests, two natural barriers, and Trubezh Lybed to navigate. On the hill there were two lakes, Fast and Karasev, where in the event of a siege people could take drinking water. At one point, the rivers flooded, turning the Kremlin into an island.
Ryazan Kremlin is an architectural sight of the central historical part of the city. The Cathedral of the Assumption Cathedral and bell tower are designed so that their silhouettes can be seen from some distance in the city, and for him. From the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, they were natural visual cues when navigating on the Oka River. In good weather, the spires and domes of the Kremlin can be seen far away from the city.
There are 8 churches in the ensemble, 6 in separate buildings, and 2 in public buildings.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.