Ryazan Kremlin, the oldest part of the city of Ryazan, is one of the oldest museums in Russia. Located on the top of a steep hill, it is surrounded by rivers and a dry moat.
Human settlement on the territory of the Kremlin had occurred during the Mesolithic Era. Slavic tribes had colonized these places already by the 6th-7th centuries. Closest to the fortress of the future settlement of Borkovskoye, people on the island of Oka led an active trade with the Byzantine Empire, East and West.
In the 11th century Pereyaslavl-Ryazan Kremlin was a fortified castle, located in the highest, north-western part of the modern architectural complex on the site of the present church of the Holy Spirit today, an area of 2 hectares. Around the fortress were various suburbs, and numerous neukreplёnnye settlement in which the peasants, fisherman, and poor artisans lived. Streets were paved with wood, and yards were located close to each other. A princes' tower apparently stood on the site of the modern Dukhovskoy church.
The area around the city was occupied by vast forests, two natural barriers, and Trubezh Lybed to navigate. On the hill there were two lakes, Fast and Karasev, where in the event of a siege people could take drinking water. At one point, the rivers flooded, turning the Kremlin into an island.
Ryazan Kremlin is an architectural sight of the central historical part of the city. The Cathedral of the Assumption Cathedral and bell tower are designed so that their silhouettes can be seen from some distance in the city, and for him. From the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, they were natural visual cues when navigating on the Oka River. In good weather, the spires and domes of the Kremlin can be seen far away from the city.
There are 8 churches in the ensemble, 6 in separate buildings, and 2 in public buildings.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.