Pembroke Castle is a Norman castle, founded in 1093. It survived many changes of ownership and is now the largest privately owned castle in Wales. It was the birthplace of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII of England) in 1457.

The history of the site predates the castle. A vast cavern beneath the Great Hall was occupied during the Middle Stone Age and was later used by the Romans.


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Pembroke, United Kingdom
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Founded: 11th century
Category: Castles and fortifications in United Kingdom


4.7/5 (based on Google user reviews)

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User Reviews

Judy Bellingham (18 months ago)
Had a fantastic day out here with the family and brought the dog along too! The tour guide Laura (I think it was her name) was great and knew her history! - The tour was free which we really appreciated. Loads of different parts of the castle to see including the cave! Highly recommend for all ages. Looks like there are a lot of activities for kids in the holidays too.
Matthew Davies (18 months ago)
Loved our guided tour by Isla, made it very interesting, going down to the cave is definitely worth it if you can navigate the spiral staircase. Parking is just £1 for 5 hours in season but a small walk up a hill.
Oliver Proctor (19 months ago)
Amazing castle! Plenty to explore, stunning views. Remember to check it out from across the water too...
Graham Slarke (19 months ago)
Excellent, informative tour. Howard, our tour guide, was so knowledgeable and enthusiastic. really enjoyed the tour. So much interesting history.
charlie jefferson (20 months ago)
Amazing visit, felt like a kid being able to fully explore the castle' s ruins, much is still intact and there is so much to look around at. Well worth the visit, I've never had access to a castle like this before, ones I visited as a kid were in too poor condition to allow much access so this was a real treat and surprise.
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Derbent Fortress

Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.

Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.

A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.

The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.

The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.

In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.

In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.