The National Archaeological Museum houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity. It is considered one of the greatest museums in the world and contains the richest collection of artifacts from Greek antiquity worldwide.
The current location was proposed and the construction of the museum's building began in 1866 and was completed in 1889.
The Prehistoric Collection consists of unique works of art representing the major civilizations that flourished in the Aegean from the 7th millennium to about 1050 BC. It includes objects from the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age, from mainland Greece, the Aegean islands and Troy. The most important exhibits are the treasures from the royal tombs at Mycenae, the Linear B tablets, the enigmatic Cycladic marble figurines and the superbly preserved wall-paintings from Thera with their large-scale compositions.
The Sculpture Collection contains a large number of unique pieces that present the evolution of ancient Greek sculpture from 700 BC to the 5th c.AD. The works come from sanctuaries, cemeteries and public buildings in Attica, Central Greece, the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands. There is also a significant number of sculptures from Thessaly, West Greece, Macedonia, Thrace and Cyprus.
The Bronze Collection is one of the world’s richest collections of original bronze works. Important groups also include vases of all types and tools, the weapons and finds from the shipwreck at Antikythera, including the famous device, a scientific instrument of the 1st century B.C. used for astronomical and calendrical calculations.
The Vases and Minor Arts Collection was assembled at the end of the 19th century. Today, about 6,000 objects are on display. The original core of the Collection (rooms 49-56) contains around 2,500 artifacts, which reveal the uninterrupted evolution of Greek pottery and vase painting from the 11th to the 4th century B.C., and is represented by the principal workshops.
The Egyptian Collection is of worldwide importance because of the wealth, quality, and rarity of its artefacts.
The compilation of the Cypriot Collection has total of around 850 artefacts, representative of all chronological periods of the Cypriot history and art, from the Early Bronze Age (around 2500 BC) to the Roman times (4th cent. AD).
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.