The National Archaeological Museum houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity. It is considered one of the greatest museums in the world and contains the richest collection of artifacts from Greek antiquity worldwide.
The current location was proposed and the construction of the museum's building began in 1866 and was completed in 1889.
The Prehistoric Collection consists of unique works of art representing the major civilizations that flourished in the Aegean from the 7th millennium to about 1050 BC. It includes objects from the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age, from mainland Greece, the Aegean islands and Troy. The most important exhibits are the treasures from the royal tombs at Mycenae, the Linear B tablets, the enigmatic Cycladic marble figurines and the superbly preserved wall-paintings from Thera with their large-scale compositions.
The Sculpture Collection contains a large number of unique pieces that present the evolution of ancient Greek sculpture from 700 BC to the 5th c.AD. The works come from sanctuaries, cemeteries and public buildings in Attica, Central Greece, the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands. There is also a significant number of sculptures from Thessaly, West Greece, Macedonia, Thrace and Cyprus.
The Bronze Collection is one of the world’s richest collections of original bronze works. Important groups also include vases of all types and tools, the weapons and finds from the shipwreck at Antikythera, including the famous device, a scientific instrument of the 1st century B.C. used for astronomical and calendrical calculations.
The Vases and Minor Arts Collection was assembled at the end of the 19th century. Today, about 6,000 objects are on display. The original core of the Collection (rooms 49-56) contains around 2,500 artifacts, which reveal the uninterrupted evolution of Greek pottery and vase painting from the 11th to the 4th century B.C., and is represented by the principal workshops.
The Egyptian Collection is of worldwide importance because of the wealth, quality, and rarity of its artefacts.
The compilation of the Cypriot Collection has total of around 850 artefacts, representative of all chronological periods of the Cypriot history and art, from the Early Bronze Age (around 2500 BC) to the Roman times (4th cent. AD).
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.