The National Archaeological Museum houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity. It is considered one of the greatest museums in the world and contains the richest collection of artifacts from Greek antiquity worldwide.
The current location was proposed and the construction of the museum's building began in 1866 and was completed in 1889.
The Prehistoric Collection consists of unique works of art representing the major civilizations that flourished in the Aegean from the 7th millennium to about 1050 BC. It includes objects from the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age, from mainland Greece, the Aegean islands and Troy. The most important exhibits are the treasures from the royal tombs at Mycenae, the Linear B tablets, the enigmatic Cycladic marble figurines and the superbly preserved wall-paintings from Thera with their large-scale compositions.
The Sculpture Collection contains a large number of unique pieces that present the evolution of ancient Greek sculpture from 700 BC to the 5th c.AD. The works come from sanctuaries, cemeteries and public buildings in Attica, Central Greece, the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands. There is also a significant number of sculptures from Thessaly, West Greece, Macedonia, Thrace and Cyprus.
The Bronze Collection is one of the world’s richest collections of original bronze works. Important groups also include vases of all types and tools, the weapons and finds from the shipwreck at Antikythera, including the famous device, a scientific instrument of the 1st century B.C. used for astronomical and calendrical calculations.
The Vases and Minor Arts Collection was assembled at the end of the 19th century. Today, about 6,000 objects are on display. The original core of the Collection (rooms 49-56) contains around 2,500 artifacts, which reveal the uninterrupted evolution of Greek pottery and vase painting from the 11th to the 4th century B.C., and is represented by the principal workshops.
The Egyptian Collection is of worldwide importance because of the wealth, quality, and rarity of its artefacts.
The compilation of the Cypriot Collection has total of around 850 artefacts, representative of all chronological periods of the Cypriot history and art, from the Early Bronze Age (around 2500 BC) to the Roman times (4th cent. AD).
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.