The Setefilla Castle is located on the outskirts of the town of Lora del Río. The name has its origin in a medieval place name that should refer to the Muslim fortress located on the table of the same name.
In the Middle Ages, Setefilla was an important enclave related tot eh Muslim conquest, the reconquest and the subsequent repopulation of the area and appears several times cited in the texts of historians of the time.
Of Arab origin, the Setefilla Castle seems to be based on an ancient Roman fort that in turn took advantage of a previous Iberian enclosure. It was built over the years 888-912 by the Banu Layt, the Berber tribe that controlled the region. They fortified the castro with the name of “Chadfilah” or “Chant Fila”.
The construction is polygonal and adapts to the surface of the hill where it sits. It has an area of approximately 4000 m2.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.