The castle in Gołańcz, which was the seat of the Pałuk family, was most likely built in the second half of the 14th century. The site was previously occupied by an older settlement, and later possibly also a fortified manor house of the Pałuks. The building was referred to as castrum for the first time in 1383; at that time, it belonged to Jakub Kusz. In the 1470s, the castle became the property of the Grudziński family, and in the early 17th century, it became the property of the Smoguleckis.
It remained in good defensive condition until the mid-17th century. In 1656, it was seized by Swedish troops with the use of artillery and destroyed — the gatehouse was demolished then. The castle was rebuilt by the Smoguleckis, who modified the tower, giving it a residential rather than defensive character. In the 18th century, the castle was a residence of General F. Fleming. The next owners were the Przebendowskis and then the Mielczyńskis. In 1773, following the First Partition of Poland, it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. It 1834, it was owned by the Czarnecki family, and it was probably abandoned at that time. The roof was completely renovated in the years 1910-1911. Between 1941 and 1944, excavations were conducted at the castle under the supervision of a German conservator-restorer called Johannes. After the war, conservation and preservation works were carried out in the years 1951-1953.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.