Dzików or Tarnowski Family Castle with the park complex and gardens is located in Tarnobrzeg. The building of the castle was started in the 15th century as a fortified residence. Between the 17th and 18th centuries, it was acquired by the Tarnowski family and reconstructed.
The castle was a site of Dzików Confederation of 5 November 1734, led by Adam Tarło, starosta from Jasło, organized in order to reinstate Stanisław Leszczyński as a king of Poland after the death of August II the Strong. However, Leszczyński resigned his command over the confederation not believing in its success against the superior Saxon and Russian armies. He limited himself only to calls for support from France, Sweden, Turkey and Prussia, but ultimately did not receive any. As a result, Leszczyński consented to abdicate on 26 January 1736; and, as a token of gratitude, received the perpetual right to use the royal title. Dzików Confederation ended in failure.
In 1830, the castle was reconstructed in the Gothic Revival style by Franciszek Maria Lanci.
Over the years, the Tarnowski family acquired an impressive art collection housed in the castle. In the 19th century, there were 250 paintings there, among others of Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt, Jacek Malczewski, and Jan Matejko. Apart from the paintings there were also valuable prints there including the oldest copy of the Polish Chronicle by Gallus Anonymus, manuscript Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz, the first Bogurodzica copy, the original Chronicles by Wincenty Kadłubek and the Wiślica Ststutes. The Polish Rider by Rembrandt, also known as Lisowczyk, one of the most valuable paintings in Poland was found in Dzikovia Tarnowski collections. In 1910, it was sold by Zdzisław Tarnowski to Henry Frick and taken away to New York, in spite of the public protests. It is currently displayed in the Frick Collection. During the war, priceless treasures of the national and European culture were left carefully hidden in Dzików, as well as deposited in the National Museum in Warsaw and Ossolineum in Lwów. Later all sorts of state institutions seized them, e.g. they are in a Łańcut Castle, close to 500 exhibit items around Dzikowia, and in the Rzeszów Museum there are over 80. The deposited part was only left scarce in the West, quite a lot of it, however, went missing without trace with eastern areas seized by Soviets.
On 21 December 1927, the castle was badly affected by a fire in which some of the collections were destroyed. 8 people died during the evacuation of priceless items from the castle, including Alfred Freyer, Polish long-distance runner and an 8-time Polish Champion. In 1931, the castle was rebuilt in the Baroque Revival style.
In 1974, a treasure chest was discovered in the basements of the palace consisting of old collections of silverware with a considerable number of precious Polish artifacts. The whole lot was transported to the Castle in Łańcut.
From 2007, the palace was under renovation. Roofing was replaced, new foundations were laid, castle basements were repaired. In 2011, the entire collections of the Historical Museum of the City of Tarnobrzeg were moved to the castle. The Museum, under the direction of Adam Wójcik and patronage of the City of Tarnobrzeg, was established at the castle in 2009.References:
The Abbey of Saint-Etienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ('Men"s Abbey'), is a former monastery dedicated to Saint Stephen (Saint Étienne). It is considered, along with the neighbouring Abbaye aux Dames ('Ladies" Abbey'), to be one of the most notable Romanesque buildings in Normandy. Like all the major abbeys in Normandy, it was Benedictine.
Lanfranc, before being an Archbishop of Canterbury, was abbot of Saint-Etienne. Built in Caen stone during the 11th century, the two semi-completed churches stood for many decades in competition. An important feature added to both churches in about 1120 was the ribbed vault, used for the first time in France. The two abbey churches are considered forerunners of the Gothic architecture. The original Romanesque apse was replaced in 1166 by an early Gothic chevet, complete with rosette windows and flying buttresses. Nine towers and spires were added in the 13th century. The interior vaulting shows a similar progression, beginning with early sexpartite vaulting (using circular ribs) in the nave and progressing to quadipartite vaults (using pointed ribs) in the sanctuary.
The two monasteries were finally donated by William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders, as penalty for their marriage against the Pope"s ruling. William was buried here; Matilda was buried in the Abbaye aux Dames. Unfortunately William"s original tombstone of black marble, the same kind as Matilda"s in the Abbaye aux Dames, was destroyed by the Calvinist iconoclasts in the 16th century and his bones scattered.
As a consequence of the Wars of Religion, the high lantern tower in the middle of the church collapsed and was never rebuilt. The Benedictine abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution and the abbey church became a parish church. From 1804 to 1961, the abbey buildings accommodated a prestigious high school, the Lycée Malherbe. During the Normandy Landings in 1944, inhabitants of Caen found refuge in the church; on the rooftop there was a red cross, made with blood on a sheet, to show that it was a hospital (to avoid bombings).