Dzików or Tarnowski Family Castle with the park complex and gardens is located in Tarnobrzeg. The building of the castle was started in the 15th century as a fortified residence. Between the 17th and 18th centuries, it was acquired by the Tarnowski family and reconstructed.
The castle was a site of Dzików Confederation of 5 November 1734, led by Adam Tarło, starosta from Jasło, organized in order to reinstate Stanisław Leszczyński as a king of Poland after the death of August II the Strong. However, Leszczyński resigned his command over the confederation not believing in its success against the superior Saxon and Russian armies. He limited himself only to calls for support from France, Sweden, Turkey and Prussia, but ultimately did not receive any. As a result, Leszczyński consented to abdicate on 26 January 1736; and, as a token of gratitude, received the perpetual right to use the royal title. Dzików Confederation ended in failure.
In 1830, the castle was reconstructed in the Gothic Revival style by Franciszek Maria Lanci.
Over the years, the Tarnowski family acquired an impressive art collection housed in the castle. In the 19th century, there were 250 paintings there, among others of Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt, Jacek Malczewski, and Jan Matejko. Apart from the paintings there were also valuable prints there including the oldest copy of the Polish Chronicle by Gallus Anonymus, manuscript Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz, the first Bogurodzica copy, the original Chronicles by Wincenty Kadłubek and the Wiślica Ststutes. The Polish Rider by Rembrandt, also known as Lisowczyk, one of the most valuable paintings in Poland was found in Dzikovia Tarnowski collections. In 1910, it was sold by Zdzisław Tarnowski to Henry Frick and taken away to New York, in spite of the public protests. It is currently displayed in the Frick Collection. During the war, priceless treasures of the national and European culture were left carefully hidden in Dzików, as well as deposited in the National Museum in Warsaw and Ossolineum in Lwów. Later all sorts of state institutions seized them, e.g. they are in a Łańcut Castle, close to 500 exhibit items around Dzikowia, and in the Rzeszów Museum there are over 80. The deposited part was only left scarce in the West, quite a lot of it, however, went missing without trace with eastern areas seized by Soviets.
On 21 December 1927, the castle was badly affected by a fire in which some of the collections were destroyed. 8 people died during the evacuation of priceless items from the castle, including Alfred Freyer, Polish long-distance runner and an 8-time Polish Champion. In 1931, the castle was rebuilt in the Baroque Revival style.
In 1974, a treasure chest was discovered in the basements of the palace consisting of old collections of silverware with a considerable number of precious Polish artifacts. The whole lot was transported to the Castle in Łańcut.
From 2007, the palace was under renovation. Roofing was replaced, new foundations were laid, castle basements were repaired. In 2011, the entire collections of the Historical Museum of the City of Tarnobrzeg were moved to the castle. The Museum, under the direction of Adam Wójcik and patronage of the City of Tarnobrzeg, was established at the castle in 2009.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.