San Felipe Castle is a defensive construction in a predominantly Neoclassical style. The first castle was built during the reign of Felipe II and it was redesigned between 1731-1775. It is one of the most representative examples of the major 'fortified batteries' of the 18th century. It was used to defend the Ferrol tidal inlet and for land offensives. The castle has a system of protruding walls, covering the flanks of the lateral walls. It follows the academic model of its time - the Enlightenment - in this case, through the application of mathematics to the art of war. It has a geometric layout and stonework. It was designed by the military engineers Francisco Montaigú, Juan de la Ferriére and Juan Vergel.
There are magnificent views from the castle, particularly for the tidal inlet and the A Palma castle. The building was recently acquired by Ferrol Council and will be renovated and refurbished for cultural use.References:
The Externsteine (Extern stones) is a distinctive sandstone rock formation located in the Teutoburg Forest, near the town of Horn-Bad Meinberg. The formation is a tor consisting of several tall, narrow columns of rock which rise abruptly from the surrounding wooded hills. Archaeological excavations have yielded some Upper Paleolithic stone tools dating to about 10,700 BC from 9,600 BC.
In a popular tradition going back to an idea proposed to Hermann Hamelmann in 1564, the Externsteine are identified as a sacred site of the pagan Saxons, and the location of the Irminsul (sacral pillar-like object in German paganism) idol reportedly destroyed by Charlemagne; there is however no archaeological evidence that would confirm the site's use during the relevant period.
The stones were used as the site of a hermitage in the Middle Ages, and by at least the high medieval period were the site of a Christian chapel. The Externsteine relief is a medieval depiction of the Descent from the Cross. It remains controversial whether the site was already used for Christian worship in the 8th to early 10th centuries.
The Externsteine gained prominence when Völkisch and nationalistic scholars took an interest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This interest peaked under the Nazi regime, when the Externsteine became a focus of nazi propaganda. Today, they remain a popular tourist destination and also continue to attract Neo-Pagans and Neo-Nazis.