Bronze Age

History of Germany between 2300 BC - 801 BC

The German Bronze Age is usually divided into an Early Bronze Age (from the end of the third/beginning of the second millennium bc to around 1600 bc), a Middle Bronze Age (1600–c.1300 BC), and a Late Bronze Age, also called the Urnfield period (1300–c.800 BC). The most important distinguishing features are the burial customs and grave forms: the Early Bronze Age is characterized by flat graves with bodies buried in the crouched position, the Middle Bronze Age by inhumations beneath mounds, and the Late Bronze Age by the deposition of urns containing cremated remains in burial places known as urnfields.

In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800-1600 BCE) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubingen, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen (today part of Sömmerda) with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows).

The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture, is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300-500 BCE) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700-450 BCE).

In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800-1600 BCE) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubingen, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen (today part of Sömmerda) with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows).

The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture, is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300-500 BCE) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700-450 BCE).

References: Wikipedia, Oxford Handbooks Online

Popular sites founded between 2300 BC and 801 BC in Germany

Ipf Hill Fort

The Ipf is a mostly treeless mountain (668 metres)with a prehistoric hill fort on its top. The fort is situated on an isolated hill, with a flattened summit surrounded by a stone wall, ditch and large counterscarp (outer bank). The overall diameter is about 180 metres. There are also extensive ramparts traversing the slopes to protect a large enclosed area and entranceway. There is evidence of occupation from the Bronze A ...
Founded: 1200-300 BC | Location: Bopfingen, Germany

Goloring

The Goloring is an ancient earthworks monument located near Koblenz. It was created in the Bronze Age era, which dates back to the Urnfield culture (1200–800 BC). During this time a widespread solar cult is believed to have existed in Central Europe. The Goloring consists of a circular ditch of 175 metres in diameter with an outside embankment extending to 190 metres. Technically this makes the structure a henge mo ...
Founded: 1200-800 BC | Location: Koblenz, Germany

Degernau Menhir or Bühlhölzle Menhir

Found in 1954 and re-erected in 1971
Founded: Bronze Age | Location: Degernau, Germany

Degernau Dolmen

Reconstructed Schwörstadt-type dolmen
Founded: Bronze Age | Location: Degernau, Germany

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch. The arch spans the Via triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph.

Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the decorative material incorporated earlier work from the time of the emperors Trajan (98-117), Hadrian (117-138) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180), and is thus a collage. The last of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, it is also the only one to make extensive use of spolia, reusing several major reliefs from 2nd century imperial monuments, which give a striking and famous stylistic contrast to the sculpture newly created for the arch.

The arch is 21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deep. Above the archways is placed the attic, composed of brickwork reveted (faced) with marble. A staircase within the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, on the west side, facing the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.