Malcolm's Tower consists of the foundations of a rubble built, rectangular tower enclosed by an oval shaped modern wall.
The tower stood on a highly defensible peninsular outcrop of rock above a deep ravine and is the site from which the city derives its name. It was effectively the seat of royal power in Scotland after Malcolm III of Scotland shifted the centre of government from Forteviot to Dunfermline in the mid 11th century. The site was also close to a religious centre which had begun as a Culdee establishment in the 9th century. The first mention of the tower in the historical record is from 1070 when Malcolm III married his queen, Princess Margaret. As queen, Margaret introduced innovations which changed the course and identity of the Church in Scotland. Not far to the east of the tower's location are the remains of Dunfermline Abbey and later royal palace.
All that survives of the tower today are foundational fragments of wall, but an image of the building was adopted at an early date as the burgh arms for Dunfermline. Old wax seals suggest it to have been a building of two storeys with an attic. It might have contained around twenty small apartments. Before the western access road to Dunfermline was built, Malcolm's Tower would have been an almost impregnable fortress, perhaps rather like a broch, and this almost certainly explains Dunfermline's motto Esto rupes inaccessa (Be an inaccessible rock).References:
Built around AD 90 to entertain the legionaries stationed at the fort of Caerleon (Isca), the impressive amphitheatre was the Roman equivalent of today’s multiplex cinema. Wooden benches provided seating for up to 6,000 spectators, who would gather to watch bloodthirsty displays featuring gladiatorial combat and exotic wild animals.
Long after the Romans left, the amphitheatre took on a new life in Arthurian legend. Geoffrey of Monmouth, the somewhat imaginative 12th-century scholar, wrote in his History of the Kings of Britain that Arthur was crowned in Caerleon and that the ruined amphitheatre was actually the remains of King Arthur’s Round Table.
Today it is the most complete Roman amphitheatre in Britain.