Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh from its position on the Castle Rock. Archaeologists have established human occupation of the rock since at least the Iron Age (2nd century AD), although the nature of the early settlement is unclear. There has been a royal castle on the rock since at least the reign of David I in the 12th century, and the site continued to be a royal residence until the Union of the Crowns in 1603. From the 15th century the castle's residential role declined, and by the 17th century it was principally used as military barracks with a large garrison. Its importance as a part of Scotland's national heritage was recognised increasingly from the early 19th century onwards, and various restoration programmes have been carried out over the past century and a half. As one of the most important strongholds in the Kingdom of Scotland, Edinburgh Castle was involved in many historical conflicts from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century to the Jacobite Rising of 1745. Research undertaken in 2014 identified 26 sieges in its 1100-year-old history, giving it a claim to having been 'the most besieged place in Great Britain and one of the most attacked in the world'.

Few of the present buildings pre-date the Lang Siege of the 16th century, when the medieval defences were largely destroyed by artillery bombardment. The most notable exceptions are St Margaret's Chapel from the early 12th century, which is regarded as the oldest building in Edinburgh, the Royal Palace and the early-16th-century Great Hall, although the interiors have been much altered from the mid-Victorian period onwards. The castle also houses the Scottish regalia, known as the Honours of Scotland and is the site of the Scottish National War Memorial and the National War Museum of Scotland. The British Army is still responsible for some parts of the castle, although its presence is now largely ceremonial and administrative. Some of the castle buildings house regimental museums which contribute to its presentation as a tourist attraction.

The castle, in the care of Historic Scotland, is Scotland's most-visited paid tourist attraction, with over 1.4 million visitors in 2013. As the backdrop to the Edinburgh Military Tattoo during the annual Edinburgh International Festival the castle has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh and of Scotland and indeed, it is Edinburgh's most frequently visited visitor attraction.

Edinburgh Castle is part of UNESCO World Heritage Site of The Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, inscribed by in 1995.

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Founded: 12th century
Category: Castles and fortifications in United Kingdom

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4.5/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

williamskdn1 (20 months ago)
This is a great day out. The price is really good. There is so much to see and do. There is historic parts, war memorial and military. Audio guide available which is really informative. There are also some crown jewels stored here.
Chiragi S (20 months ago)
Loved it. Its usually windy up in castle so wearing layers is recommended. Can easily spend 2 hours looking around. Beautiful views from each corner of castle.
Steven Bird (20 months ago)
What a great day out this is! You can have a thirty minute guided tour for no extra or an audio tour for a few pounds. Don't miss the one o clock gun and don't ask what time it goes off either!
Richard Kopman (20 months ago)
Very interesting and cultural attraction. Make sure you go with an open mind as well as time on your hands. There is a lot to read and learn. As you delve deeper into the castle you will discover the other historic delights to feed your brain. Add to that great views of Edinburgh and beyond on a clear day and you have a fantastic day out. Enjoy!
berty ashley (20 months ago)
What a place! The history, the views, the majesty! Absolutely stunning. And very well maintained and excellent services. And the red coat face was brilliant! Loved the smoked salmon. Best I've had in a long time. Do visit!
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Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.

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A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.

The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.

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In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.