A parish church was established in Edinburgh as early as 854. This first church, a modest affair, was probably in use for several centuries before a new one was founded in the 1120s.
The 12th-century church was part of an effort of the Scottish royal family, especially David I (1124-1153), to spread Catholic worship throughout the Scottish lowlands. This church was probably quite small, Norman (Romanesque) in style, like others built at the same time. Few traces of it survive in the present building.
The parish church was formally dedicated by the bishop of St. Andrews in 1243 and subsequently named in honor of St. Giles, a 7th-century French hermit and abbot and the patron saint of Edinburgh. According to legend, Giles was accidentally wounded by a huntsman in pursuit of a hind and he is usually depicted protecting a hind from an arrow which had pierced his own body. A fine relief of this can be seen in the tympanum over the main doors of the Cathedral.
In 1385, a much larger church (early Gothic, pointed arches and simple octagonal pillars) was partially burned. No record has been found of the building of this second church. It was quickly repaired. In 1466, the church was granted collegiate status, and in 1495, the unique crown spire was added.
Many chapels were added in this period, sponsored by the craftsmen’s guilds of Edinburgh, prominent merchants, and nobles. One of the chapels was built to contain a relic of St Giles. By the middle of the 16th century, there were as many as 50 altars in the church.
In 1559, John Knox ('Scotland's Martin Luther') preached his first sermon on the Reformation at the High Kirk of St. Giles. His listeners reported that 'he was so active and vigorous it looked as if he was about to break the pulpit in bits and fly out of it.' Knox was instrumental in spreading the Presbyterian form of Protestantism throughout Scotland.
In 1633, King Charles I appointed Scottish Episcopalbishops and in 1635 William Forbes became the first bishop of the new diocese of Edinburgh. The church of St Giles' thus became a cathedral, as the seat of a bishop. Although it is today a Presbyterian church, which does not have bishops, St. Giles' continues to be referred to as a cathedral.
By 1800, the High Kirk of St. Giles was in a state of disrepair. Extensive restorations were undertaken in the 19th century, significantly altering the appearance of the church. The most important event of recent history occurred in 1996, when a national service was held at St. Giles' upon the return of the Stone of Destiny's return to Scotland.
St. Giles Cathedral combines a dark and brooding stone exterior with surprisingly graceful buttresses. Inside, a major highlight is the Thistle Chapel, designed by Robert Lorimer and finished in 1911. Some decorations have survived from the late medieval period (1385-1560), including heraldic carvings, sections of tombs and memorials, and various religious and non-religious carvings. Recognizable 12th-century remains in the church include a scalloped capital, now built into the wall of St Eloi's Aisle, and a corbel stone featuring a grotesque carved face, built into the wall by the door to the Cathedral shop.References:
The Old Town Hall of Wrocław is one of the main landmarks of the city. The Old Town Hall's long history reflects developments that have taken place in the city since its initial construction. The town hall serves the city of Wroclaw and is used for civic and cultural events such as concerts held in its Great Hall. In addition, it houses a museum and a basement restaurant.
The town hall was developed over a period of about 250 years, from the end of 13th century to the middle of 16th century. The structure and floor plan changed over this extended period in response to the changing needs of the city. The exact date of the initial construction is not known. However, between 1299 and 1301 a single-storey structure with cellars and a tower called the consistory was built. The oldest parts of the current building, the Burghers’ Hall and the lower floors of the tower, may date to this time. In these early days the primary purpose of the building was trade rather than civic administration activities.
Between 1328 and 1333 an upper storey was added to include the Council room and the Aldermen’s room. Expansion continued during the 14th century with the addition of extra rooms, most notably the Court room. The building became a key location for the city’s commercial and administrative functions.
The 15th and 16th centuries were times of prosperity for Wroclaw as was reflected in the rapid development of the building during that period. The construction program gathered momentum, particularly from 1470 to 1510, when several rooms were added. The Burghers’ Hall was re-vaulted to take on its current shape, and the upper story began to take shape with the development of the Great Hall and the addition of the Treasury and Little Treasury.
Further innovations during the 16th century included the addition of the city’s Coat of arms (1536), and the rebuilding of the upper part of the tower (1558–59). This was the final stage of the main building program. By 1560, the major features of today’s Stray Rates were established.
The second half of the 17th century was a period of decline for the city, and this decline was reflected in the Stray Rates. Perhaps by way of compensation, efforts were made to enrich the interior decorations of the hall. In 1741, Wroclaw became a part of Prussia, and the power of the City diminished. Much of the Stray Rates was allocated to administering justice.
During the 19th century there were two major changes. The courts moved to a separate building, and the Rates became the site of the city council and supporting functions. There was also a major program of renovation because the building had been neglected and was covered with creeping vines. The town hall now has several en-Gothic features including some sculptural decoration from this period.
In the early years of the 20th century improvements continued with various repair work and the addition of the Little Bear statue in 1902. During the 1930s, the official role of the Rates was reduced and it was converted into a museum. By the end of World War II Town Hall suffered minor damage, such as aerial bomb pierced the roof (but not exploded) and some sculptural elements were lost. Restoration work began in the 1950s following a period of research, and this conservation effort continued throughout the 20th century. It included refurbishment of the clock on the east facade.