Cleish Castle is a 16th-century tower house in Kinross-shire built by the Colville family, who owned it until 1775. It was restored and remodelled in the mid 19th century, and restored again in the 20th century. It remains a private residence and is a category A listed building. The grounds of the castle are included in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland, the national listing of significant Scottish gardens.
The Colvilles' ownership of the barony of Cleish is recorded from 1537, when it was granted to Robert Colville by his father, Sir James Colville of Easter Wemyss. The tower is described as a fine example of a 16th-century tower house, and was extended and heightened in the early 17th century. Upper dormers bear the date 1600. Robert's son John Colville conspired against James VI, taking part in the Ruthven Raid and later joining with Francis Stewart, 5th Earl of Bothwell, in an attack on Holyroodhouse.
Cleish was sold to the Graham family of Kinross in 1775, and sold again around 20 years later to the Young family. It was derelict before 1840, and was then restored later in a Scots baronial style. The reconstruction was undertaken by the Edinburgh architect John Lessels, who also designed additions to the castle in around 1870. In the 1970s it was again remodelled, though further work in the 1990s removed most of the later additions, and in 2001 the western extension was replaced.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.