The history of Olbía, Greek for “happiness”, of its harbour and the thousands of years of layers of culture. On the small Peddone island a short walk from the old port is the archaeological museum of Olbia, the Gallura region’s main city, home to an exhaustive collection of relics from the ancient civilisations that thrived in Sardinia. As an homage to its location on the sea and the role the port city played in the island’s history, the museum is shaped like a ship at anchor, with portholes and hanging walkways.
The exhibition is dedicated to the history of the port and city and focuses on the Phoenician, Greek, Punic, Roman, medieval, modern and contemporary eras. The museum has two levels. In the first hall on the ground floor are the ancient masts and rudders of real ships and the reconstruction of two laden cargo ships that were burned down during an attack by Vandals in about 450 CE. In the fourth room you will get a feeling, by way of a projection, of what the attack was like, with the sinking of eleven ships, an event that marked the end of the Roman era in Olbia. The second and third halls display other remains from the port, including a medieval shipwreck, the only one of its kind in Italy. A model of the harbour as it was in the 2nd century CE can be found in last hall.
The first hall on the second floor focuses on pre-Nuragic and Nuragic eras, Phoenician settlement (750 BCE) and Greek occupation (630-520 BCE), when Olbia was the only Greek port in the western Mediterranean Sea. Greek relics were, of course, unearthed during digs here. The second hall is dedicated to the Carthaginians, symbolized by the granite stele featuring the goddess Tanit, and then the Romans.
The third hall is home to terracottas, funerary items and amphorae dating to when the Punic civilization gave way to the Roman one, while the following room documents Olbia in full Rome era (from the mid-1st century BCE). You will see sculptures like the heads of the Emperor Domitian, the Empress Domitia and an extraordinary one of Hercules, the city’s most revered divinity. The fifth room deals with the relationship between Roman Olbia and the Mediterranean, as well as the traumatic advent of the Vandals. The items on display include clay lamps, coins, rings, necklaces and an Egyptian statue of the god Osiris.
The last hall on the upper floor is devoted to the Byzantine era, when the city was reduced to a mere town, and then subsequent periods: as the capital of Gallura, during the Spanish-Aragonese period (when it was called Terranova), the Piedmontese era, during Italy’s unification and afterwards.References:
Glimmingehus is the best preserved medieval stronghold in Scandinavia. It was built 1499-1506, during an era when Scania formed a vital part of Denmark, and contains many defensive arrangements of the era, such as parapets, false doors and dead-end corridors, 'murder-holes' for pouring boiling pitch over the attackers, moats, drawbridges and various other forms of death traps to surprise trespassers and protect the nobles against peasant uprisings. The lower part of the castle's stone walls are 2.4 meters (94 inches) thick and the upper part 1.8 meters (71 inches).
Construction was started in 1499 by the Danish knight Jens Holgersen Ulfstand and stone-cutter-mason and architect Adam van Düren, a North German master who also worked on Lund Cathedral. Construction was completed in 1506.
Ulfstand was a councillor, nobleman and admiral serving under John I of Denmark and many objects have been uncovered during archeological excavations that demonstrate the extravagant lifestyle of the knight's family at Glimmingehus up until Ulfstand's death in 1523. Some of the most expensive objects for sale in Europe during this period, such as Venetian glass, painted glass from the Rhine district and Spanish ceramics have been found here. Evidence of the family's wealth can also be seen inside the stone fortress, where everyday comforts for the knight's family included hot air channels in the walls and bench seats in the window recesses. Although considered comfortable for its period, it has also been argued that Glimmingehus was an expression of "Knighthood nostalgia" and not considered opulent or progressive enough even to the knight's contemporaries and especially not to later generations of the Scanian nobility. Glimmingehus is thought to have served as a residential castle for only a few generations before being transformed into a storage facility for grain.
An order from Charles XI to the administrators of the Swedish dominion of Scania in 1676 to demolish the castle, in order to ensure that it would not fall into the hands of the Danish king during the Scanian War, could not be executed. A first attempt, in which 20 Scanian farmers were ordered to assist, proved unsuccessful. An additional force of 130 men were sent to Glimmingehus to execute the order in a second attempt. However, before they could carry out the order, a Danish-Dutch naval division arrived in Ystad, and the Swedes had to abandon the demolition attempts. Throughout the 18th century the castle was used as deposit for agricultural produce and in 1924 it was donated to the Swedish state. Today it is administered by the Swedish National Heritage Board.
On site there is a museum, medieval kitchen, shop and restaurant and coffee house. During summer time there are several guided tours daily. In local folklore, the castle is described as haunted by multiple ghosts and the tradition of storytelling inspired by the castle is continued in the summer events at the castle called "Strange stories and terrifying tales".