The Santa Cueva de Nuestra Señora de Covadonga (Holy Cave of Our Lady of Covadonga) is a Catholic sanctuary cave in the Picos de Europa mountains. The name refers to the sanctuary, dedicated to the Virgin of Covadonga, where the first batlle of the Spanish Reconquest took place in 718.
The origin of the cave as place of cult is controversial. It seems to have been originally another place of confluence of Pagan Cult as the Old English Wilweorthunga, meaning 'well of worship' had been in Prehistorical times and still during the Roman Empire occupation. The Christian tradition has it that Pelagius, chasing a criminal, who had taken refuge in the cave, meets a hermit who was venerating the Virgin Mary. The hermit asked Pelagius to forgive the criminal, since the criminal had resorted to the protection of the Virgin, and says that one day that he too would need to seek shelter in the Cave.
The first construction in the Holy Cave dates back of the reign of Alfonso I of Asturias, who, to commemorate the victory of Pelagius to the Muslims, built a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, that would give rise to the invocation of the Our Lady of Covadonga (popularly known as La Santina). In addition to the altar dedicated to the Virgin built other two for Saint John the Baptist and Saint Andrew. Alfonso make delivery of this church to the Benedictine monks.
The cave was covered with wood, and in 1777 a fire destroyed the medieval Marian statue. The current wooden image of Virgin and Child dates to the 16th century and was donated to the sanctuary by the Cathedral of Oviedo in 1778.
During the civil war the Virgin image disappears and is found in the Embassy of Spain in France in 1939. The present chapel of Romanesque style is work of Luis Menéndez-Pidal and Alvarez.
The shrine of Covadonga was very important for the early (8th century) Christian kingdom of Asturias. Several members of the royal family buried in the Pantéon Real de Covadonga like Pelagius of Asturias (died 737), the first king of Asturias.References:
La Hougue Bie is a Neolithic ritual site which was in use around 3500 BC. Hougue is a Jèrriais/Norman language word meaning a \'mound\' and comes from the Old Norse word haugr. The site consists of 18.6m long passage chamber covered by a 12.2m high mound. The site was first excavated in 1925 by the Société Jersiaise. Fragments of twenty vase supports were found along with the scattered remains of at least eight individuals. Gravegoods, mostly pottery, were also present. At some time in the past, the site had evidently been entered and ransacked.
In Western Europe, it is one of the largest and best preserved passage graves and the most impressive and best preserved monument of Armorican Passage Grave group. Although they are termed \'passage graves\', they were ceremonial sites, whose function was more similar to churches or cathedrals, where burials were incidental.