Situated on the left bank of the Navia Estuary, Castro de Coaña is a hilltop settlement (4th Century BC) surrounded by walls and accessed from the south. The main defensive structure is located precisely in the south and consists of a wide ditch dug into the slaty subsoil finished off by a wall. Inside, the settlement is divided into several sectors.
It has a diamond shape in which the three areas can be clearly distinguished. The acropolis is a triangular enclosure surrounded by a wall, not used for housing. Access to this area was protected by a square tower. The northern residential sector spreads out beneath the north wall of the acropolis, mostly consisting of circular huts. Some of them are accessed via a hall or corridor. The walls are made of slate with rounded corners.
Inside the residential sector near the gate to the acropolis, there are two groups of buildings associated with channelling water and a pool, a granite vessel called a 'bath', which suggests that it was used for bathing or rustic saunas.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.