Palmi Cathedral is the principal church of Palmi in Italy, and co-cathedral of the diocese of Oppido Mamertina-Palmi. There are no accurate reports on the age in which this parish was established. Between 1310 and 1311, is attested in Palmi a church of St. Nicholas was the only one in the village. The church of St. Nicholas is again reminded in some acts of 1532. The church, in 1586, stood clear of the city walls.
In the 18th century, the clergy and the authorities of Palmi strove because the church was elevated to a collegiate church. The church, which was rebuilt in the period 1740–1743, was destroyed by the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes. In March 1786 the church was rebuilt.
The church was again damaged by an earthquake in 1894. Then it was provided once again in its reconstruction, but came the 1908 Messina earthquake which caused further serious damage to the structure that prejudiced use. Therefore, in 1909, proceeded to the demolition of the building.
The new and current collegiate church of St. Nicholas, was opened for worship in 1932 and was dedicated to the 'Madonna of the Letter', the main protector of the city.
In the main façade, next to the church was completed in 1956 the Civic Tower with clock.
The building is in Romanesque Revival architecture style. In the main facade is placed an artistic canopy and a porch and a small 'portico' with four columns. On the left side there is the civic tower town which functions also as a bell tower of the church.
In its interior, with a Latin cross plan, there is a nave and two aisles on which there are two apses, respectively, to St. Nicholas, the patron saint of Palmi, and to the Sacred Heart.
Above the cover are octagonal dome, without windows, and side of the church there is a chapel to officiate minor functions.
In the walls of the aisles you can see a painting of 'St. Joseph with the Child Jesus' (1892), a painting of 'St. Francis of Assisi in adoration of the Cross' (1932), a wooden statue of 'St. Joseph with the Child Jesus' (18th century), a statue a wooden 'Assumption of Mary' (18th century).
On the main altar, made of marble, is exposed a precious ancient icon of 'Our Lady of the Letter' (1774).
In a chapel, built recently, is a shrine in which is placed the relic of the Holy Hair.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.