The Archaeological park of Scolacium hosts the ruins of the ancient Greek City of Skilletion that became a Roman colony after the war against Hannibal, and assumed the name of Minervia Scolacium. Little remains of the pre-Roman settlement, while the structure of the Roman colony and rests of paved roads and aqueduct, of the thermal plant, the amphitheater and the theater are still visible. The theater lies on a natural hill slope and could seat about 5000 people. It was built during the 1st century AD, and was equipped with a new scene when the new colony was founded by Nerva.
In the same period, the town became a considerable monumental center with developed built-up areas. The theater was subject to successive renewals till the 4th century AD. Most materials discovered during digging campaigns come from the theater and include remarkable architectural fragments and sculpted groups. Close to the theater, rests of the amphitheater were found, whose construction dates back to Nerva times. The Park also hosts the Basilica of Santa Maria di Roccella, founded between the 11th and 12th centuries following the canons of the Romanic art with Byzantine and Arab influences.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.