The Rmanj Monastery is a Serbian Orthodox monastery dedicated to Saint Nicholas and located in Martin Brod in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the left bank of the Unac River near its confluence with the Una.
Rmanj may come from Romani, the former dwellers of Roman Empire. The exact year of the Rmanj Monastery cannot be determined, though it is the westernmost Serbian Orthodox monastery at the end of the 16th century. After the Ottoman Empire's conquest of the area, the monastery was temporarily abandoned in 1578. Bosnian Beylerbey Telli Hasan Pasha had the Rmanj Monastery renewed as a seat of his brother, Orthodox monk Gavrilo Predojević. In the early 17th century, it became the see of the Serbian Orthodox Metropolitanate of Dabar-Bosnia, and it remained in this capacity for about 110 years.
After the monastery was burned down by the Turks in 1663, it was later rebuilt and reoccupied in 1737. It was burned down again during the Austro-Turkish War of 1787–1791. Ottoman authorities allowed the renovation of the monastery in 1863, and it was rebuilt in two years. It was badly damaged during the anti-Ottoman uprising in Bosnia in 1875 and 1876. Next year, Arthur Evans visited Rmanj (spelled as 'Ermanja' by him), and in one of his letters, he described the damage inflicted on the monastery's church by troops under a Bosnian Muslim feudal lord. Once more, the monastery was repaired in 1883.
In World War II, a field hospital of the Yugoslav Partisans was organised at the monastery. For this reason, it was bombed by the Germans and completely destroyed on 23 April 1944. In 1974, authorities of the Socialist Yugoslavia allowed the renovation of the monastery. Its church was completed in the 1980s, and the foundation of the monks' dormitory was consecrated in 1993. In 1995, during the Croatian Army's Operation Storm, the monastery was shelled and badly damaged. Afterwards, Croatian soldiers mined the monastery's church, but the mines were removed by British soldiers of the SFOR. The dormitory was completed in 2006, and in the following year, the monastery was inhabited by three monks. In 2007, the Rmanj Monastery was proclaimed a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.References:
The Château de Foix dominates the town of Foix. An important tourist site, it is known as a centre of the Cathars. Built on an older 7th-century fortification, the castle is known from 987. In 1002, it was mentioned in the will of Roger I, Count of Carcassonne, who bequeathed the fortress to his youngest child, Bernard. In effect, the family ruling over the region were installed here which allowed them to control access to the upper Ariège valley and to keep surveillance from this strategic point over the lower land, protected behind impregnable walls.
In 1034, the castle became capital of the County of Foix and played a decisive role in medieval military history. During the two following centuries, the castle was home to Counts with shining personalities who became the soul of the Occitan resistance during the crusade against the Albigensians. The county became a privileged refuge for persecuted Cathars.
The castle, often besieged (notably by Simon de Montfort in 1211 and 1212), resisted assault and was only taken once, in 1486, thanks to treachery during the war between two branches of the Foix family.
From the 14th century, the Counts of Foix spent less and less time in the uncomfortable castle, preferring the Governors' Palace. From 1479, the Counts of Foix became Kings of Navarre and the last of them, made Henri IV of France, annexed his Pyrrenean lands to France.
As seat of the Governor of the Foix region from the 15th century, the castle continued to ensure the defence of the area, notably during the Wars of Religion. Alone of all the castles in the region, it was exempted from the destruction orders of Richelieu (1632-1638).
Until the Revolution, the fortress remained a garrison. Its life was brightened with grand receptions for its governors, including the Count of Tréville, captain of musketeers under Louis XIII and Marshal Philippe Henri de Ségur, one of Louis XVI's ministers. The Round Tower, built in the 15th century, is the most recent, the two square towers having been built before the 11th century. They served as a political and civil prison for four centuries until 1862.
Since 1930, the castle has housed the collections of the Ariège départemental museum. Sections on prehistory, Gallo-Roman and mediaeval archaeology tell the history of Ariège from ancient times. Currently, the museum is rearranging exhibits to concentrate on the history of the castle site so as to recreate the life of Foix at the time of the Counts.