The Rmanj Monastery is a Serbian Orthodox monastery dedicated to Saint Nicholas and located in Martin Brod in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the left bank of the Unac River near its confluence with the Una.
Rmanj may come from Romani, the former dwellers of Roman Empire. The exact year of the Rmanj Monastery cannot be determined, though it is the westernmost Serbian Orthodox monastery at the end of the 16th century. After the Ottoman Empire's conquest of the area, the monastery was temporarily abandoned in 1578. Bosnian Beylerbey Telli Hasan Pasha had the Rmanj Monastery renewed as a seat of his brother, Orthodox monk Gavrilo Predojević. In the early 17th century, it became the see of the Serbian Orthodox Metropolitanate of Dabar-Bosnia, and it remained in this capacity for about 110 years.
After the monastery was burned down by the Turks in 1663, it was later rebuilt and reoccupied in 1737. It was burned down again during the Austro-Turkish War of 1787–1791. Ottoman authorities allowed the renovation of the monastery in 1863, and it was rebuilt in two years. It was badly damaged during the anti-Ottoman uprising in Bosnia in 1875 and 1876. Next year, Arthur Evans visited Rmanj (spelled as 'Ermanja' by him), and in one of his letters, he described the damage inflicted on the monastery's church by troops under a Bosnian Muslim feudal lord. Once more, the monastery was repaired in 1883.
In World War II, a field hospital of the Yugoslav Partisans was organised at the monastery. For this reason, it was bombed by the Germans and completely destroyed on 23 April 1944. In 1974, authorities of the Socialist Yugoslavia allowed the renovation of the monastery. Its church was completed in the 1980s, and the foundation of the monks' dormitory was consecrated in 1993. In 1995, during the Croatian Army's Operation Storm, the monastery was shelled and badly damaged. Afterwards, Croatian soldiers mined the monastery's church, but the mines were removed by British soldiers of the SFOR. The dormitory was completed in 2006, and in the following year, the monastery was inhabited by three monks. In 2007, the Rmanj Monastery was proclaimed a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.